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on 8 June 2017

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Transcript of LISTENING

Practical session


Find main ideas
What are the most important points? Listen for clue words such as major, most important, or similar words

Identify significant details
What dates, names, or facts does the speaker use to support the main ideas? What kind of examples or explanations are used to support the main ideas

Distinguish between fact and opinion
A fact is a statement that can be proved to be true. An opinion is a belief or a judgement about somethings and cannot be proved to be true

Note comparisons and contrasts
Are some details compared or contrasted with others
Understand the cause and effect. Does the speaker say or hint that some events cause others to occur? Or does the speaker suggest that some events are the results of others

Predict outcomes and draw conclusions
What reasonable conclusions or predictions can you make from the facts and evidence you have gathered from the speech?

The LQ2R Method of listening to lectures
Listen carefully to the information as it is being presented.

your attention only on the speaker, and don’t allow yourself to be distracted

Question yourself
as you listen. Make a list of questions as they occur to you

in your own words the information as it is being presented.

information in your mind or jot down notes as you listen
Re-listen as the speaker concludes the presentation, The speaker may sum up, or repeat, major points of the presentation

What is the Logic of the argument? what is the speakers point of view?

what is he strength of the evidence?

how valid are the conclusion?

what is the implication of the message

what are the speakers intentions and motives?

what makes the speaker credible?

what bias could color the information presented?

what is an opinion and fact in this work?

Healthy skepticism
Intellectual humility
Free thinking
High motivation
Characteristics of a good listener
arguments will have indicators such as ‘since’, ‘because’, ‘for’, ‘for the reason that’, and ‘as indicated by’ to separate the conclusion statement(s) from the reason statement(s) that follows.

At other times, arguments will have indicators such as ‘therefore’, ‘thus’, ‘so’, ‘hence’, and ‘it follows that’ to separate the reason statement(s) from the conclusion statement(s) that follows. In some cases there will be no indicator words at all; the context alone will indicate if a statement is intended as a reason, a conclusion, or neither.
Various Types of Listening?

Content Listening
Helps one to understand and retain the information in the speakers message
it does not matter whether you agree or disagree - only that you understand
Empathic listening
Listening in order to understand the speaker's feelings, needs, and wants so that you can appreciate his point of view regardless of whether you share that perspective.

Should you advice against the emotions? instead let the speaker know that you appreciate his/her emotions and understand his situation.
Active listening
one makes a conscious effort to turn off filters and biases to truly hear and understand what the other party is saying. you ask questions to verify key points and encourage the speaker through positive body language
Mind wondering/ tuning out
Thinking faster than a person speaks leads one to tune out
Making up your mind before listening fully
Defensive listening
Failure to give non verbal signals back
Inability to distinguish main point from details

Ineffective listening
How to recognize an argument
Recognize & Avoid Critical Listening Hindrances
Basic Human Limitations - applies to everyone, including the most proficient critical thinkers. These limitations remind us that we are not perfect and that our understanding of facts, perceptions, memories, built-in biases, etc., preclude us from ever seeing or understanding the world with total objectivity and clarity. The best we can do is to acquire a sufficient or adequate understanding depending on the issue at hand.
Understanding the Listening process
Listening is a far more complex process than most people think - and most of us are not very good at it.
People listen at no better than 25% efficiency rate, remember only about half of what's said during a 10-minute conversation and forget half of that within 48 hours, further more when questioned about material they've just heard they are likely to get facts mixed up
To listen effectively you need to complete these 5 steps
You start by physically hearing the message and acknowledging it. Physical reception can be blocked by noise and even non-verbal messages
This involves assigning meaning to sounds according to your own beliefs, ideas, expectations, roles, needs and personal history
Capture Information in short -term memory and then work on sending it to long term memory for more permanent storage
The next step is to evaluate the message by applying critical thinking skills to separate fact from opinion and evaluate the quality of the evidence
The initial reaction to a message may take the form o verbal feedback, laughter, applause or silence. one may later on act on what they have heard
Overcoming barriers
Avoid interrupting speakers,
avoid selective listening,
carefully analyse what you hear,
avoid pre-judgement,
avoid listening defensively,
write down points dont count on your memory,
repeat information,
break it into shorter lists,
use association,
visualize, and use mnemonics.
How to cope with conflict
In a conversation from time to time conflict will arise. Here are some do's and don'ts for dealing with conflict
Do try to prevent conflict from arising in the first place. Keep your ears and eyes open for signs of irritation in the person you are talking to.
Try and defuse the problem before it develops any further - by, for example adjusting your conversation style. if you tend to ask lots of questions, try backing off. the other person may be resenting your interrogating
Don't let things get out of hand, if in spite of your efforts to prevent conflict, it does develop, Make a comment on the turn the conversation has taken. For example: 'We seem to be having an argument.' or 'Why are we getting angry about this?, or 'I've said something to upset you?
Don't suddenly raise your voice or tense your body - or the situation could get worse still. Getures and tones of voice are more likely to spark things off than the words you use.
Do be prepared to drop the subject. if the argument is simply going round and round in circles, will further discussionreally increase understanding between you and the other person? Continue the discussion only if the other person clearly wants to.
Do make sure you have really understood what the other person is saying thinking, feeling
Do bear in mind that there are often things in people's backgrounds - an unfortunate experience in childhood, say - that makes them take an extreme position in some particular area.
Do remember that the other person has a right to an opinion. Agree to disagree.
“Hearing” is physiological. Your ears register sounds of all kinds— the drone of an airplane flying overhead, music from the radio, a child’s laugh, the words someone speaks. But hearing someone’s words is only the beginning. It’s what you do when you hear the words that makes the difference between hearing and listening.
(Chan 2002)
Strathmore University
Full transcript