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Internationalizing University Writing: Sequencing L2 Writing

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by

Jessica Reynolds

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of Internationalizing University Writing: Sequencing L2 Writing

The Results
Internationalizing University Writing: Sequencing L2 Writing Courses with First Year Composition Courses
Data Collection Method
Data was collected by emailing the directors of FYC and IEP programs of Region III universities, inquiring if there was any ongoing collaboration //sequencing between these two programs regarding L2 writing pedagogy.
The OU Case Study
Initial Connections : Writing Center and Teachers
FYC // CESL Workshop : Pedagogical Exchange
SJS Connection : Building a Bridge
New FYC Instructor ESL Training: Raising Awareness
International Instructors' Seminar: Ongoing Collaboration, Praxis Development

Theoretical Connections
Internationalizing U.S. Campuses
Acculturation to U.S. University Society
Cultural Dissonance in Class Material
Student // Teacher Disconnect
L1 // L2 Writing Transfer
Unnoticed and Undervalued
L2 and L1 Writing Inequalities
Academic Writing
Academic Writing Discourse Community
"Standard" = Culturally Bound
Product vs. Process Writing
The Role of the Writing Teacher
Ethnographer
Teaching Culture = Teaching Writing
Culturally Sensitive Learning Cues


Historical Foundations
"The ascendance and dominance of English, contributing to the proliferation of ESL or English as a Foreign Language (EFL) programs both in the U.S. and abroad, is obviously political, thus causing the situation of any ESL student in any classroom inside or outside a university to be ideologically charged" (Severino, 1993).
Internationalizing University Writing
Program Ecology
Beginning Together
1941 - Establishment of the first ELI at the University of Michigan.
Current-Traditional rhetoric or focus on grammatical correctness in FYC programs completed L2 Language instruction.
Professionalization of Composition (1940 - 1960) - equal focus on ELL pedagogical issues in both L2 Writing and Composition.
OU IEP program
OU FYC program
OU Bridge Programs
The Separation Point
1966 - Establishment of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL). L2 writing became the sole concern of TESL.
Little to no research is done in Composition on ELL pedagogy or students.
1980s saw a shift towards process pedagogy. Although both fields were "separated" many of the learning and teaching methods mirrored each other.
The Process of Internationalizing Writing
1990 - More issues on ELLs started to be addressed in Composition.
1999 - Moves toward creating curriculum for international Composition classes. Example at Purdue of Paul Kei Matsuda's and Tony Silva's cultural composition class.
2009 - CCCC published an outline for guidelines for teachers and methods to help ELL writing and writers.

Overall Results
Of the schools contacted, only one - the University of New Orleans - has a consistent bridge program set up for the purpose of internationalizing writing. Many schools have international composition classes and robust IEP programs but minimal collaboration or sequencing for L2 writers.
Oklahoma
Texas
Arkansas
Louisiana
U of L @ Laf.
Data Analysis
Of the 22 schools contacted, 14 universities from four states volunteered information.
57% of these schools have some type of Composition course equivalency for international students.
Only 29% of schools reported training FYC instructors in ELL pedagogical issues and only 50% of these schools had any collaboration with the IEPs.
OSU
There is no formal connection between the FYC and IEP departments.
NSU
Composition training occurs, but there is no collaboration between the FYC & IEP departments.
UTA
No formal connection exists between the IEP and FYC departments. Some international students enter developmental classes, but the courses are not geared toward ESL instruction.

SMU
At this point in time, no connection has been established between the IEP and FYC departments.
U of A @ Fay.
No ELL-specific courses exist in the FYC; however, instructors teaching composition do have some ESL pedagogical training. The Spring International Language Center works with many departments on campus to promote ELLs.
Central AK-UCA
No formal relationship exists between the two departments. Based on Compass writing scores, international students either place in Composition 1 or in a transitional writing class.
~Present Progress and Possibilities~
Pedagogy
Training Opportunities
Creating Culturally Sensitive, Praxis-Based Curriculum
Meeting Students' ZPDs
Giving Effective, Culturally Appropriate Feedback
Sequencing FYCs/IEPs
Communication
Collaborating Across Disciplines
Preventing Unexpected Obstacles
Problem-Solving Student Issues
Circumventing/Negotiating Administration Constraints
Achieving Praxis through Tracking Students
Making Steps toward Institutional Change
Training
Having Better Prepared, Confident Instructors (Raising Awareness)
Staying Up-To-Date on Trends in L2 and Composition Theory and Teaching
Integrating L2 Writing and L1 Teaching Methods

TU
Although there is no formal relationship between the FYC and IEP Departments, FYC instructors are trained in teaching writing to ELLs. Also, ISS and the writing program work together to help achieve ELL student success.
TCU

UNO
The IELP and English Department do collaborate, through the newest level of IELP (there were formerly only 6). ENG 100 (the 7th level of the IELP) is the bridge to mainstream Freshman Composition, made up of international and American students. The instructor of this course maintains frequent contact with UNO's English Department.
Throughout Institutional Policies
At TCU, several international students are enrolled in both IEP and FYC courses concurrently. Also, the IEP program helps train teachers in FYC.
UT
Little connection exists between the FYC and ELI programs; however, the ELI offers some credit courses for graduate students.
Rice
Writing courses for international students take place in the Program for Writing and Communication. These students are not part of an IEP or a bridge program.
Within Program Ecologies
No formal relationship exists; however, students who are from the IEP automatically enter ESOL 101 instead of ENG 101.
Connecting and Sequencing

According to Program Ecology
According to Student Needs
Using Praxis
Supported and Sustained "Bridges"
LA Tech
No formal relationship exists; however there is an international composition section.
Becoming Permanently Cross-Cultural

Expanded Role of TESOL Professionals
Multilingual Literacy for All
Embracing Societal Bilingualism


Mediate Language Power
Enable Multilingual Voices
Develop Non-Standard Standardization

"It is time for compartmentalization between and within professions to end and for mainstream researchers and practitioners to begin to address...the writing of minority bilinguals" (Valdes, 1992).
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