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History of American Deaf Education
Transcript of History of American Deaf Education
American Deaf Education retrogression: [re-truh-gresh-uhn] - the process of returning to an earlier state, typically a worse one. The Retrogressions of American Deaf Education Achievements and civil rights for Deaf people William Stokoe recognized American Sign Language as a language. 1960 Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc Foundation of American Deaf School Golden Age of Deaf Education 1818 - New York School for the Deaf established
1820 - Pennsylvania School for the Deaf
1823 - Kentucky School for the Deaf
1829 - Ohio School for the Deaf
1839 - Virginia School for the Deaf State Residential School for the Deaf
across the country He met deaf girl named Alice Cogswell in 1814. Her father, Dr. Mason Cogswell funded for Gallaudet to go other countries to find the best way to educate deaf children. Laurent Clerc worked at Institution
Nationale des Sourds-Muets as teacher.
He met Gallaudet in England in 1815 and invited him to visit the school and learn to educate deaf children.
1816 Gallaudet and Clerc came to America. April 5, 1817 Gallaudet and Clerc found the school. Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind 1864 Washington, D.C. Now known as Gallaudet University advocate for oral education
wanted to ban sign language Alexander Graham Bell established his own private school for deaf students using oral method in Boston in 1872 Many countries conferred in Milan, Italy, on what was the appropriate method to educate the deaf children. The representatives from different countries except United States believed that the oral method was superior to manual method. However, United States accepted the oral method later as the best method to instruct deaf children.
The popularity of manual communication declined sharply in the next decade. Milan Conference of 1880 National Association of the Deaf Established in 1880 immediately after the Milan Conference to preserve the right to use sign language and to advocate for deaf people. 1913 George Veditz, 7th president of NAD, made short film, The Preservation of the Sign Language. 1968 - Bilingual Education Act (P.L. 89-10) is passed. American Sign Language is not included because it is not recognized as a language 1988 - Congressional Report published - "Toward Equality: Education of the Deaf" recommends that ASL be used as a primary medium of language instruction with English as a second language. Also recommends that ASL be included in the Bilingual Education Act but it was not approved because of the status of hearing parents and questions regarding ASL as a foreign language. handicapped children in the U.S. be provided with free and appropriate education, allowing many to be mainstreamed into regular public schools, where they receive special instruction but interact with the general public school population. Mainstreaming is accepted as current educational philosophy. 1975 – Public Law 94-142 requiring that the disabled be given access and equal opportunity to use the resources of organizations that receive federal funds or that are under federal contracts.
also requires that accommodations such as TTY phones and interpreters be provided for the deaf The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 The law requires that all businesses, colleges and organizations which have federal contracts or receive federal funds be open and accessible to physically disabled persons Section 504 in 1978 Marlee Matlin won an Oscar award for her role in "Children of a Lesser God" 1987 3.3 million people tuned to "Switched at Birth" which Marlee Matlin stars in. 2011 1988 The Babbidge Report stated that deaf education using oral method is a failure. 1964 Audism
the discrimination agains a person based on hearing status 1975