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Introd to linguistic Sciences: Morphology

(UNIT 2)
by

Inmaculada Pineda

on 12 August 2013

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Transcript of Introd to linguistic Sciences: Morphology

Introduction to Linguistic Sciences
Unit 2 Morphology: Words and their parts
What is a word?
Language is a communication system made out of signs
iconic signs
non-iconic signs
Morphology
1) a word is a sound or combination of sounds to which speakers attach meaning

2) a linguistic sign in Saussure's sense
Inmaculada Pineda, PhD
bottom
ass
buttocks
backside
behind
cheeks
fanny
rear
posterior
tail
butt
bum
stinkpot
table
morphemes: meaningful units within words
Structural/morphological knowledge of a word and its parts can help you derive information from different sentences and word combinations.
affixes can help you derive a word's syntactic category
(noun, verb, adjective, etc...)
wanpela pik 'one pig'
tripela pik 'three pigs'

Mi wok nau. 'I'm working now.'
Mi wok asde. 'I worked yesterday.'

Em i stap long haus. 'He's in the house' or 'She's in the house' or 'It's in the house.
Em i lukim mi. 'He/she/it saw me.'
Mi lukim em. 'I saw him/her/it.'

Mi wok. 'I worked.'
Yu wok. 'You worked.'
Em i wok. 'He/she worked.'
Tom i wok. 'Tom worked.'

Mi lukim dok. 'I saw the dog.'
Mi lukim ol dok. 'I saw the dogs.'

Ben i bin wok asde. 'Ben worked yesterday.'
Ben bai i wok tumora. 'Ben will work tomorrow.'
Ben i wok i stap nau. 'Ben is working now.'
Ben i wok pinis. 'Ben is finished working.'
Ben i save wok long Sarere. 'Ben works on Saturday.'
Ben i ken wok. 'Ben can work (he is allowed to).'
Ben inap wok. 'Ben can work (he has the ability).'
1. Fred invited us (including you) to the party.
2. Fred invited us (but not you) to the party.
1. Fred i bin singautim yumi long pati.
2. Fred i bin singautim mipela long pati.

bikpela haus 'big house'
strongpela man 'strong man'
blakpela pik 'black pig'
tripela dok 'three dogs'

Em i rit. 'He is reading.'
Em i ritim buk. 'He's reading a book.'
Wara i boil pinis. 'The water has boiled.'
Meri i boilim wara pinis. 'The woman has boiled the water.
Bai mi rait. 'I'll write.'
Bai mi raitim pas. 'I'll write a letter.'
Kanu i kapsait. 'The canoe capsized.'
Ol i kapsaitim kanu. 'They capsized the canoe.'
Tok Pisin Examples
Papua New Guinea
English + German +Malay + Portuguese + Austronesian languages = Tok Pisin
Words can be:

monomorphemic


polymorphemic
woman
read
air
merchant
paper
man
study
break
swim
number
Michael
Mary
Telephone
airplane
uneasiness
discomfort
friendly
reader
courageous
heroic
polymorphemic
Thank you!
content words (open class)
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs


function words (closed class)
determiners, numerals, quantifiers, prepositions, pronouns, conjunctions, degree words, auxiliary verbs, modals
Free morphemes
Bound morphemes
affixes
roots
roots
Derivational affixes
Inflectional affixes
combined to make new words
add info. to the word (plural, tense, etc)
Morphology exercises
Derivational affixes
Inflectional affixes
combined to
make new words
add info. to the word (plural, tense, etc)
syntactic category root
syntactic category of resulting word
suffixes only
Nouns:
number
case
gender
Verbs:
-s (3rd p sing)
past tense -ed
progressive -ing
past participle-ed/en
mutated forms (OE)
Adjectives:
-er (comparative)
-est (superlative)
suppletive (better, best, worse, worst,...)
Word trees
friendship


friend ship
quickly


quick ly
grievance


grie(f) ance
adj

v able

v
grade
de
n

v ation


re organize
Pronouns
case
Next session:
exercises
start reading unit 5
Full transcript