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Psychological Methods

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ana chavez

on 11 September 2017

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Transcript of Psychological Methods

Conducting Research
Scientists take many steps when conducting research.
Methods of Observation
The Naturalistic-Observational Method
Description-Researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitats.
Advantages-Enable researchers to witness the behavior of people or animals in settings that are not artificial.
Disadvantages- Researchers have no control over the setting or the events that occur.
The Experimental Method
Informed Consent

Before the study begins the researcher must outline to the participants what the research is about, and then ask their consent (i.e. permission) to take part.

However, it is not always possible to gain informed consent. This is acceptable as long as what happens to the participants is something that could easily happen to them in everyday life. For example, if the research involves observing people in a bus queue, those people may be observed by anyone when they are in the queue.

Participants must be given information relating to:

• Purpose of the research.

• Procedures involved in the research.

• All foreseeable risks and discomforts to the subject. These include not only physical injury but also possible psychological.

• Benefits of the research to society and possibly to the individual human subject.

• Length of time the subject is expected to participate.

• Person to contact for answers to questions or in the event of injury or emergency.
Psychological Methods
1. Conducting Research
Ethical Issues
2. Surveys, Samples, and Populations
3. Methods of Observation
4. The Experimental Method
5. Ethical Issues
Hypothesis: a testable prediction (If, then, because)
Testing a hypothesis
Draw conclusion
analyze the results
Will a stranger help you if you are in danger?
"75% of bypassers would look the other way if a stranger was in danger."
A sample is a subset of a population that is used to represent an entire group as a whole.
A population is a collection of people living in a geographic area, or space. Overall the population changes with the discrepancy between the birth rate and the mortality rate.
Longitudinal Methods
Description- a group of participants are observed at intervals over an extended period of time.
Advantages- Enables researchers to see how individuals change over time.
Disadvantages- Time consuming and expensive. Participants may not be available for the duration of the study.

7-up video
Laboratory-Observational methods
Description-Participants are observed in a laboratory setting.
Advantages- Enables researchers to precisely control certain aspects of the study.
Disadvantage- Laboratories cannot duplicate real-life environment.

The Testing Method
Description-Several types of tests measure various elements of human behavior such as abilities, interests, and personality.
Advantages-Convenient method for researchers to gain insight to certain aspects of an individuals abilities or behavior.
Disadvantages- Does not always provide a complete representation of an individuals true abilities or personality.

Case study method
Description-Researchers conduct in-depth investigations of individuals or small groups.
Advantages-Provides insight into specific cases.
Disadvantages-May focus on isolated events that cant be replicated. People interviewed may distort their past experiences. Researchers may unintentionally encourage people to answer questions a certain way.
Cross Sectional Methods
Description-Researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different age groups at a given time.
Advantages- Less time-consuming than the longitudinal method for studying changes over time.
Disadvantages- Differences between the members of the sample cannot necessarily be attributed to age or development.
The method researchers use to answer questions about cause and effect is the experiment. In an experiment, participants receive what is called a treatment, such as a change in temperature or a new drug.

25. Selective Attention Test

24. Violinist in the Metro Station

23. Piano Stairs

22. The Milgram Experiment

The Marshmallow Test

The Bystander Effect

19. The Asch Conformity Experiment

18. The Stanford Prison Experiment
17. The Bobo Doll
16. Pavlovs Dogs
15. The Little Albert
14. Carlsberg Social Experiment
13 "Missing Girl" Experiment
12. A Class Divided
11. Harlows Monkeys
10. Robbers Cave
This classic study reminiscent of Golding’s Lord of the Flies is a classic example of prejudice and conflict resolution. 22 eleven-year old boys were randomly separated into two groups and taken to a summer camp in Robbers Cave State Park, Oklahoma. The groups were housed in separate cabins and neither group knew of the other’s existence for an entire week. The boys bonded with their cabin mates during that time. When the two groups were introduced, they began to exhibit signs of verbal abuse. To increase the conflict between the groups, the experimenters made them compete against each other in a series of activities. More hostility ensued until the groups refused to even eat in the same room. The final phase of the experiment involved turning the rival groups into friends. The fun activities the experimenters had planned like shooting firecrackers and watching movies did not initially work, so they created teamwork exercises where the two groups were forced to collaborate. At the end of the experiment, the boys decided to ride the same bus home, demonstrating that conflict can be resolved and prejudice overcome through cooperation.
9. The Monster Study
8. Contagious Yawning
7. The Halo Effect
6. Identical Twins
5. Car Crash
4. Cognitive Dissonance
3. Candid Camera Elevator
2. Change Blindness
Known as The Monster Study because of its unethical methods, this experiment determined the effects of positive and negative speech therapy on children. Wendell Johnson of the University of Iowa selected twenty-two orphan children, some with stutters and some without. He engaged the stutterers in positive speech therapy, praising them for their fluency, and the non-stutterers in negative speech therapy, belittling them for every mistake. As a result of the experiment, some of the children who received negative speech therapy suffered psychological effects and retained speech problems for the rest of their lives, making them examples of the significance of positive reinforcement in education.
Change blindness is the ability to detect subtle changes in objects or scenes that would be perfectly obvious upon closer inspection. This unawareness can even include the recognition of human faces. One experiment revealed that visual distractions can cause change blindness. A man behind a counter handed a consent form to a subject. He then stooped down behind the desk to “retrieve a packet” only to have a different man emerge from behind the desk and give the packet to the subject. The second man in the experiment did not look like the first and was even wearing a different colored shirt. Astonishingly, 75 percent of subjects didn’t even notice the change, revealing how much the human brain misses from one moment to the next.
Scientific Method
The "Thing" you want to know; the questions you want answered.
Research info on the problem, what do we already know?
data you collect during an experiment
Research Methods
A survey: a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample.
Double blind procedure
An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the staff are ignorant about whether the participants have received treatment.
Placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone
Experimental condition
exposes participants to the treatment
Control condition
contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
Cause and Effect
Statistical Reasoning

dependent variable: the variable that may change in response to manipulations
independent variable: the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
82% of U.S. drivers consider themselves to be in the top 30% of their group in terms of safety

81% of new business owners felt they had an excellent chance of their businesses succeeding. When asked about the success of their peers, the answer was only 39%. (Now that's overconfidence!!!)
We tend to think we know more than we do.

Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon.

After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet.

ie: Dr. Money
Researchers must not deceive participants deliberately without valid justification.Slight deception could be used if it can be justified and it does not harm the participants.
Protection of Participants
As a rule, participants should suffer no physical or psychological harm in the research. Researchers should avoid invasion of privacy in covert observational studies unless it is justified.
The "median" is the "middle" value in the list of numbers. To find the median, your numbers have to be listed in numerical order, so you may have to rewrite your list first.
The "mode" is the value that occurs most often. If no number is repeated, then there is no mode for the list.
The "mean" is the "average" you're used to, where you add up all the numbers and then divide by the number of numbers.
The "range" is just the difference between the largest and smallest values.
Researchers must inform participants about the results of the research and assure them that they have not been harmed in any way, especially if deception was used.
Right to withdraw
Participants have the right to withdraw at any moment in the research process. They also have the right to withdraw their data from the study when it is finished if they are not satisfied with the development of the research.
Researchers must assure that all data remain anonymous so that participants will not be recognized.
Discuss ethical consideration in the case study of Dr. Money (1975)
Due Next class
Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.
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