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World History

Lecture
by

Dustin Harrison

on 27 April 2016

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Transcript of World History

The Cold War
1945
1991
Overview
1. Lasted from 1945 through early 1990s
2. Few areas of the globe unaffected
3. Each country tried to pull the rest of the world into their standoff
4. All of this took place in the context of a nuclear arms race
5. Global Holocaust possible at the touch of a button
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill, & Stalin
Planning for postwar Europe
Potsdam Conference
Truman, Churchill, & Stalin
How to deal with Germany
Each of the allies took a section to help rebuild
1948  GB, US, & French zones of Germany joined to form a democratic West Germany
USSR region became East Germany
Berlin (the capital) was on the eastern side
Also divided into eastern & western zones*
Soviets cut off land access to Berlin from the west known as the Berlin Blockade
West retaliated  Berlin Airlift
Supplies to “trapped” western Berliners *
Soviets relented and Berlin divided in half
1961  Soviets built a wall between the halves to preventing access from East to West until the wall fell in 1989
1947
East vs West
Truman Doctrine
U.S. stated it would aid countries threatened by communist takeovers (containment policy)
Western bloc formed a military alliance of mutual defense  NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Eastern bloc formed the Warsaw Pact*
Churchill  “The Iron Curtain”
1950
Prior to WWII, Korea was invaded and annexed by Japan as it expanded
After WWII, Korea was supposed to be re-established as an independent nation
BUT, until stability achieved and elections, it was occupied by:
USSR  north of 38th parallel (communist)
US  south of 38th parallel (democratic)
Both USSR & US withdrew in 1949
1950  North Korea attacked South Korea
Goal: unite under communist government
Multinational force (mostly US and British troops) went to aid S. Korea
Made significant headway under General MacArthur
Pushed N. Korea almost up to China
China intervenes on the side of communist north
Both sides battled along the 38th parallel
Eventually reached armistice in 1953
Today, Korea is still split into 2 nations (technically still at war)
N. Korea = communist; S. Korea = democracy
N. Korea has built up a huge military & has acquired the technology to develop a nuclear bomb
Already developed missiles capable of delivering bombs to S. Korea, Japan, China, and possibly the east coast of the US
1954
After WWII, the French tried to hold on to their colony of Indochina
Nationalists known as the Vietminh fought them back
By 1954, Vietminh’s guerilla tactics succeeded in frustrating the French
Accord was signed in Geneva dividing the nation in two pieces: 17th parallel*
Communist North Vietnam  under Ho Chi Minh*
Democratic South Vietnam  Ngo Dihn Diem*
Under its new constitution, N. Vietnam supported reunification as communist state
War soon broke out
France and US came to aid the South
Ho Chi Minh prevented them from taking over the north
Hundreds of thousands of deaths
Peace agreement eventually led to reunification of Vietnam as communist state under Ho Chi Minh
Long rang impact:
U.S. – defeat affected foreign policy for decades
Public fearful of involving itself in “another Vietnam”
Hmmm… see any parallels to today?
Korean War
Vietnam War
1962
Cuba won independence from Spain during the Spanish-American War of 1898
Fidel .Castro - suspended elections and established a communist dictatorship
Executed his rivals
Castro established strong ties to USSR when US imposed an economic embargo on Cuba
Planned to overthrow Castro - Bay of Pigs (President Kennedy)
Paid missionaries to start a revolt - failed miserably
Cuba and USSR mobilized
1962 US spy planes detected the installation of Soviet missiles in Cuba
Kennedy established a naval blockade
Made it clear that US would retaliate if missiles launched
Standoff = Cuban Missile Crisis
Kennedy vs Nikita Khrushchev
Lasted 3 months
USSR agreed to remove missiles in return for US promising not to invade Cuba
Closest brush the world has ever had to full-out nuclear war
Cuban Missile Crisis
Standard of living in Western Europe improved dramatically
Eastern Europe, massive state-run industries couldn’t keep up with Western innovations
Increasing numbers in Eastern bloc wanted democratic and economic reform (like Poland)
Decline of communism in Soviet bloc led to reunification of Germany as a free market democracy
Berlin Wall torn down in 1989 signaled the fall of East Germany
USSR disintegrated in 1991 - Russia
Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, & others became independent nations
1991  Cold War was over, Warsaw Pact disbanded, and US became world’s only superpower
Cold War Ends
Developments in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East
After WWII, a wave of independence movements marked the beginning of the end of European imperialism
Why?
During Cold War, Western powers fought to defend self-determination
Hard to justify imperialistic policies
subjugated peoples no longer willing to tolerate their treatment  rose up and demanded independence
Took years for momentum to build into organized resistance to colonial power
1919 Amritsar Massacre catapulted the movement
319 Indians (Hindu & Muslim) slaughtered by British General during a peaceful protest in a park
Protesting the arrest of 2 of their leaders (also peacefully protesting)
Indians joined the self-rule cause by the millions full fledged movement
Gandhi became the movements voice
Organized huge protests against colonial rule
Used passive resistance (civil disobedience)
After WWII, British granted independence to Indian subcontinent
After WWII, African nations also sought independence*
Inspired by events in India & elsewhere
Hundreds of thousands of Africans fought for their colonial powers during WWII
Though their willingness to die for their governing countries had earned them the right to live free
Difficulties in Africa
While nearly all wanted independence, most had been raped of their resources
Vast majority of Africans uneducated
Unlike India, where many upper-caste attended universities in Britain
Few people with education and skills to take charge and begin to build a productive, self-sufficient society once the colonial powers left
Another problem: Little national unity because colonies drawn to foster European needs
Africans within spoke different languages, had different customs, and histories
Point being: Even after independences, nations struggled to build strong, stable countries
Decolonization and nation building occurred in a variety of ways across Africa*
Some fought, others negotiated...etc.
Israel
Recap: Hebrews (Jews) occupied lands in Palestine at the time of the Roman Empire
Series of conquests and power changes over time
Many Jews stayed in the region, most left
Palestine increasingly entrenched in Islam (Ottoman Empire)
All the while, many Jews wanted to return to their “promised land”
During and after WWII  Jews came by the hundreds of thousands to escape Hitler
1948  UN created 2 Palestines
One for Jews & one for Muslims (Palestinians)
Lots of violence over the years
Suicide bombings became increasingly frequent
The Iranian Revolution
1960s instituted land and education reform
Also increased rights of women (right to vote)
Pursued higher education and careers
Adopted western dress
Infuriated many Islamic fundamentalists who wanted teachings of the Qu’ran to be the law of the land
Thought Western influence was too much
1979- Back to theocracy (led by Ayatollah (“Mirror of God”) Khomeini)*
Modernization and Westernization programs reversed
Women required to wear traditional clothing & return to traditional roles
Qu’ran became the basis of the legal system
Since Ayatollah Khomeini’s death in 1989, power struggle between Islamic fundamentalists and reform-minded (pro-West) minority
Increased tension with US over “peaceful” nuclear technology
Iran is being called on to stop nuclear programs
2005 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad elected president
Persian Gulf War
1990  Iraq invaded Kuwait under leadership of Saddam Hussein
Goal: Gain control of more oil reserves
Industrialized West responded immediately
UN (US mostly) sent troops to drive Iraqis out of Kuwait
Immediate success  Iraq humiliated:
Subjected to UN monitoring
Severe limitations on military activity
Hussein remained in power (UN didn’t move forward to oust him)
Brutal dictatorship for another 10 years
2003  Coalition (mostly US and Great Britian) invaded Iraq to oust Saddam
Iraq’s government quickly fell
Saddam eventually captured, and hanged
Sovereignty was returned to transitional government in 2004
Democratically elected government formed
Iraq increasingly plagued by sectional conflicts among Sunni, Shiites and Kurds
Suicide bombings frequent
Al Qaeda, Taliban, and Osama Bin Laden
1980s - USSR sent troops to Afghanistan at the request of Marxist leader Nur Muhammad Taraki (who had engineered a coup against the previous government)
Many Afghans opposed communism and Soviet intervention
Civil War
Some resisters called themselves “holly warriors”
Aided with weapons from Western powers
Internal problems in USSR, withdrew troops and peace accord signed
Warring factions continued to vie for power in Afghanistan
Taliban triumphed after 14 years (2 million deaths)
Islamic fundamentalist regime-Imposed strict Islamic law
Severe restrictions on women
Provided a safe haven for Osama bin Laden- Saudi Leader of international terrorist network known as Al Qaeda
Serious distaste for Saudi Arabia & US
Thinks Saudi Arabia's ruling family is too cozy with U.S.
Allowed US to remain since Persian Gulf War (means infidels in Islamic lands)
US supports Israel
Primary agent of globalization-Believe its infecting Islamic culture
September 11, 2001  World Trade Center bombings-Total  around 3,000 dead
US launched a war on terrorism  targeting Al Qaeda & Taliban
Taliban removed from power- US & UN occupy Afghanistan
Al Qaeda still survives (Osama killed in a raid)
Suicide bombings and terrorist attacks continue regularly
Globalization and NGO's
Nongovernmental organizations have become and ever increasing presence in our modern world
Typically private, often nonprofit, agencies that provide relief services and/or advocacy for groups not served or represented by their governments
Examples: Doctors Without Borders, Amnesty International, etc
NGOs often lead relief efforts following natural disasters and during wars
Organizations, such as the World Wildlife Fund, provide advocacy for the world’s animals (which of course don’t get represented in government)
Globalization made it easier to communicate and travel around the world for NGOs to provide their services on a global scale
"We Didn't Start the Fire"
Create a brochure for an NGO explaining what you do, your goal, and your progress so far.
Full transcript