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Transcript of CLAUSES
Clauses come in four types: main [or independent], subordinate [or dependent], adjective [or relative], and noun. Every clause has at least a subject and a verb. Other characteristics will help you distinguish one type of clause from another.
Recognize a clause when you see one.
Main Clauses -
Every main clause will follow this pattern:
SUBJECT + VERB =
Every Subordinating Clause follow this pattern:
SUBJECT + VERB = INCOMPLETE THOUGHT
Here are some examples:
Whenever lazy students whine
(Whenever = subordinate conjunction; students = subject; whine = verb.)
As cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter
(As = subordinate conjunction; cola = subject; spilled, splashed = verbs.)
Because my dog loves pizza crusts
(Because = subordinate conjunction; dog = subject; loves = verb.)
The important point to remember about subordinate clauses is that they can never stand alone as complete sentences.
To complete the thought, you must attach each subordinate clause to a main clause. Generally, the punctuation looks like this:
main clause + subordinate clause.
subordinate clause + , + main clause.
Check out these revisions to the subordinate clauses above:
Whenever lazy students whine, Mrs. Russell throws chalk erasers at their heads.
Anthony ran for the paper towels as cola spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter.
Because my dog loves pizza crusts, he never barks at the deliveryman.
A relative clause will begin with a relative pronoun [such as who, whom, whose, which, or that] or a relative adverb [when, where, or why]. The patterns look like these:
RELATIVE PRONOUN OR ADVERB + VERB = INCOMPLETE THOUGHT
RELATIVE PRONOUN AS SUBJECT + VERB = INCOMPLETE THOUGHT
Here are some examples:
Whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser
(Whom = relative pronoun; Mrs. Russell = subject; hit = verb.)
Where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm
(Where = relative adverb; he = subject; chews, drools = verbs.)
That had spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter
(That = relative pronoun; had spilled, splashed = verbs.)
Who loves pizza crusts
(Who = relative pronoun; loves = verb.)
Like subordinate clauses, relative clauses cannot stand alone as complete sentences. You must connect them to main clauses to finish the thought. Look at these revisions of the relative clauses above:
The lazy students whom Mrs. Russell hit in the head with a chalk eraser soon learned to keep their complaints to themselves.
My dog Floyd, who loves pizza crusts, eats them under the kitchen table, where he chews and drools with great enthusiasm.
Anthony ran to get paper towels for the cola that had spilled over the glass and splashed onto the counter.
Essential relative clauses do not require commas. A relative clause is essential when you need the information it provides. Look at this example:
A dog that eats too much pizza will soon develop pepperoni breath.
Dog is nonspecific. To know which dog we are talking about, we must have the information in the relative clause. Thus, the relative clause is essential and requires no commas.
If, however, we revise dog and choose more specific words instead, the relative clause becomes nonessential and does require commas to separate it from the rest of the sentence. Read this revision:
My dog Floyd, who eats too much pizza, has developed pepperoni breath.
Any clause that functions as a noun becomes a noun clause. Look at this example:
You really do not want to know the ingredients in Aunt Nancy's stew.
Ingredients = noun.
If we replace the noun ingredients with a clause, we have a noun clause:
You really do not want to know what Aunt Nancy adds to her stew.
What Aunt Nancy adds to her stew = noun clause.
* You use time clauses to say when something happens.
* Time clauses can refer to the past, present, or future.
* Time clauses are introduced by words such as `after', `when', or `while'.
* A time clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.
The time clause can come before or after the main clause.
PURPOSE AND REASON CLAUSE
* Purpose clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `so', `so as to', `so that', `in order to' or `in order that'.
* Reason clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as', `because', or `in case'.
* A purpose or reason clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence.
* A purpose clause usually comes after a main clause. A reason clause can come before or after a main clause.
Different Noun Clause Uses
What he knows [subject] is no concern of mine.
Do you know what he knows [object]?
What can you tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?
The trouble was that they had never been there before [predicative nominative].
* You use result clauses to talk about the result of an action or situation.
* Result clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `so', `so...(that)', or `such...(that)'.
* A result clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The result clause always comes after the main clause.
* These are clauses introduced by `although', `in spite of' and `though'.
* You use contrast clauses when you want to make two statements, and one statement makes the other seem surprising.
* Contrast clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `although', `in spite of', or `though'.
* A contrast clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The contrast clause can come before or after the main clause.
* You use manner clauses to talk about how something is done.
* Manner clauses are introduced by conjunctions such as `as', `as if', `as though', or `like'.
* A manner clause needs a main clause to make a complete sentence. The manner clause always comes after the main clause.