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Roberto Obando

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Mae Nazar

on 8 September 2017

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Transcript of Roberto Obando

Program Goals and Strategies
What RAPP has brought is a “whole of government approach to crime prevention” in which all relevant agencies collaborate to address the roots causes of crime.

Testimony from a Police Supervisor from the Trinidad & Tobago Police Service.
Towards a Successful National Policy
Theoretical Framework
Results and Successes
Overcame the great divide: "soft policing" vs. "strong policing"
Local thinking: tailored content to local context
Reached past the "silo mentality"
Connected efforts: engaged middle managers for lasting results
Brought knowledge to the table: constructed a common youth development understanding
Conclusion
Pay attention to governance issues in the targeted countries

Emphasize the need for commitment, coordination, and cooperation at all levels of the government and legislature

Mobilize the main three drivers of change: international cooperation, elite bargains, community engagement
Successes and Challenges Turning Evidence-Based Crime Prevention Programs into Successful National Policies
Roberto Obando
RAPP Program:
RAPP
Enhance stakeholders' capacity to collaborate on crime and violence prevention activities to improve public safety in the targeted areas.
Increase positive interactions between law enforcement and justice sector actors and youth to strengthen crime and violence prevention.
Capacity Building Courses
Youth and
Community Dialogues
Experiential
Learning
Activities
Community
Action Plans
1
Built capacity within law enforcement agencies and relevant government departments to implement collaborative social crime prevention strategies
2
Improved the ability of different stakeholders to collaborate on social crime prevention activities
3
Improved the trust between police officers and communities
4
Reduced legal cynicism and increase the legal socialization process among youth
5
Facilitated crime reduction activities and increase public safety in the areas of intervention
Key Assumptions
Crime Prevention
Program
Organizational
Sociology
Public
Administration
Governance and Political
Institutions
The program has already been identified as having a positive impact through empirical evidence
The program to be replicated is carried out as a pilot initiative
Policies are not empty legal statements in a codebook
What Factors Affect Implementation?
Does Implementation Matter?
Programs that monitored implementation obtained effect sizes three times larger than programs that reported no monitoring.

School anti-bullying programs that monitored implementation obtained 100% reduced rates of bullying and victimization compared with those that did not monitor implementation.

Functional Family Therapy: Competent

Functional Family Therapy: Not Competent

Aggression Replacement Training: Competent

Aggression Replacement Training: Not Competent
313 181


313 206


417 501


108 203
Number of Youth Participating
Control
Program
27% 16.7%


27% 31.5%


24.8% 18.8%


24.4% 26.5%
Adjusted 18-month felony recidivism
Control
Program
-38.1% +$10.69


-16.7% -$4.18


-24.2% +$11.66


+6.9% -$3.10
Results of the Evaluation
Change in Recidivism
Benefit to Cost
Provider Characteristics
Perceived need for innovation
(extent to which the proposed innovation is relevant to local needs)
Perceived benefits of innovation
(extent to which the innovation will achieve benefits desired at the local level)
Self-efficacy
(extent to which providers feel they are will be able to do what is expected)
Skill proficiency
(possession of the skills necessary for implementation)
Characteristics of the Innovation
Compatibility
(extent to which the intervention fits with an organization’s mission, priorities, and values)
Adaptability
(extent to which the proposed program can be modified to fit provider preferences, organizational practices, and community needs, values, and cultural norms)
Delivery System / Organizational Capacity
Organizational norms regarding change
Integration of new programming
Coordination with other agencies
Communication
Formulation of tasks
Leadership
Program champion
Managerial / supervisory / administrative support
Support System
Training
Technical Assistance
Community Level Factors
Prevention theory and research
Politics
Funding
Policy
Piloting
Results and Successes
RAPP knowledge dissemination and learning agenda
Expanded the knowledge of prevention theory and research among 2,007 key stakeholders
Improved mutual understanding between law enforcement and at-risk youth, through dialogues in which more than 9,000 adults and youth participated
RAPP Technical Assistance
Increased the openness for innovation
Improved self-efficacy and skills within government agencies
RAPP Curriculum Adaptation
Allowed the achievement of compatibility with Police Academies and high-level police authorities’ priorities, and values, including the necessary changes to adapt to organizational practices, and community needs, values, and cultural norms)
RAPP Inter-Agency Collaboration
Improved shared decision-making (local input, community participation or involvement, local ownership, collaboration)
Increased coordination with other agencies (partnerships, networking, inter-sector alliances, multidisciplinary linkages)
Promoted leadership and program champions within several key law enforcement and justice sector agencies
RAPP Support System
Provided a positive environment for 5,810 at-risk youth to better interact with law enforcement and justice sector officials
Staffing and training
Intervention content
Program delivery
Intervention participants
The need for program adaptation
Considerations to implement evidence-based programs in a new setting
Monitor the extent to which your program closely adheres to the intervention’s key features:
Achieving fidelity upon scaling up at the national level
Correct deviations from the key features when they may arise
Checklists completed by program delivery staff
Checklists completed by intervention participants
Direct observation of intervention sessions
Challenges of a Pilot Program
Relevant factors for pilot programs and policies
Experimentation
Limited resources devoted to external evaluations
Early Implementation
Lack of local buy-in
Inability to secure funding for the next budget cycles to absorb pilot as part of regular operations
Demonstration
Reduced ability to form multi-sector coalitions, including support from diverse political parties outside government administration
Not enough emphasis on storytelling
Learning
Incipient knowledge and learning management systems in the respective agencies
Rolling out Policies:
DOs
Pay attention to the level of “administrative intensiveness” necessary to roll out the policy
Put in place a deliberate “targeting strategy” to secure buy-in from groups and policy actors
Minimize political risk by working towards getting support from opposition leaders
Assess any constraints on State activity
Establish a parameter of how intense and cohesive the policy needs to be to achieve effectiveness
Identify which model is better suited for program delivery
Debate which governance model is required
Balance the pros and cons of the new policy in terms of visibility and budgeting
It took 263 years after a British Captain of a vessel name James Lancaster demonstrated the preventive value of citrus juice against scurvy, which at the time killed thousands of sailors; before the British merchant navy finally introduced citrus at the end of the 19th century as a routine supplement to its sailor’s shipboard diet.

Can we do it quicker?
It takes long to move from research to policy
Roberto Obando
Project Director
riobando@padf.org | 202.458.6351
Lessons Learned
Capitalized on concerns: crime prevention efforts through community engagement
Secured a long-term impact: achieved sustainability through partnerships
Focused on local crime concerns: beyond the international agenda
Boosted decision making: data working for us
Educated at-risk youth on Law Enforcement System: sold the experiential learning idea
Context of the problem


Cause of the problem


Ideas and Values


Actors and power for
policy

Institutional setting for
policy approval

Budgetary constraints
Pilot Program Realm
National Policy Realm
Factor
Identifiable


Clear and unanimous


Grounded on empirical
evidence

None with veto power


Relatively easy to secure


Never
Complex


Unclear and diverse


Grounded on ideology or
sentiment

Many players with veto
power

Difficult to secure as it creates imbalances of power and challenges to status quo

Always
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