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The Jefferson Era
Transcript of The Jefferson Era
The Election of 1800
- Federalists nominate John Adams and Charles Pinckney as his VP
- Republicans nominate Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as his VP
- Believed in "a wise and frugal government"
- Wanted to reduce the size and power of the federal government
- Supported a French philosophy called "laissez faire"
Jefferson as President
Judiciary Act of 1801
- Before Jefferson was President, Adams passed this act which set up jobs for 16 regional judges
- Adams and his chief justice John Marshall worked quickly to appoint the judges before Jefferson became President; nicknamed the "midnight judges"
- The paperwork had not been delivered to some judges when Jefferson becomes President
- He told his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver the papers (called commissions) - one of them was to go to William Marbury
- Marbury sues Madison for not delivering the commission
Marbury v Madison
- Supreme court establishes judicial review (judicial branch can review things done by Executive and Legislative Branches)
- Madison wins!
- Many settlers moved out west through the Appalachian Mountains and were known as pioneers
The French Threat
- 1802, Spain makes a secret deal with France to transfer the Louisiana Territory (they don't allow any more trade on the Mississippi River)
- Jefferson believes that France's leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, wants to create an empire in America.
Revolt in Santo Domingo
- Napoleon had wanted this island as a naval base for trade and supplies in the Caribbean, but now that France didn't own it, he didn't have use for Louisiana.
- France said they would sell the Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
- Jefferson accepted and the U.S. doubled in size!
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson asked Congress to fund a scientific expedition past the Mississippi River and try to find a Northwest Passage
- Assembled a crew and left St. Louis in 1804
- They kept a journal of what they saw along the way
- Sacajawea, a Native American girl became their guide
- They finally made it to the Pacific Ocean and both took separate routes back east (made it back by 1806)
- Zebulon Pike was also sent by Jefferson out west to explore
- He traveled into Colorado and found the Rocky Mountains (first peak named Pike's Peak)
- He also traveled through the Great Plains, Rio Grande, northern Mexico and Texas
Federalists Plan to Secede
- Federalists wanted to withdraw from the Union and were afraid the new states that would form from the Louisiana Territory would be Republican
- Federalists decided to support Aaron Burr who was running for NY governor, once he knew Jefferson didn't want him as VP
- Federalists "needed" NY to be part of their new Northern Confederacy in New England
Burr and Hamilton
- When Burr loses NY, he blames Alexander Hamilton and challenges him to a duel
- Burr shoots Hamilton and runs away to avoid arrest
Piracy on the Seas
- Pirates off the African Coast demanded tributes from the merchant ships to let them pass safely into the harbor
War with Tripoli
- Tripoli wanted a higher tribute, but Jefferson said no, so they declare war on the U.S.
Neutral Rights Violated
- America remained neutral with both France and Britain, but they both wanted the U.S to pick a side
- Many European countries would pay, but Jefferson didn't like this idea
- Tripoli seizes the U.S.S. Philadelphia and jail the crew
- Captain Stephen Decatur burned the ship so Tripoli couldn't use it
- War ends a year later, and Tripoli agrees to stop asking for a tribute but requires $60,000 for the prisoners
- Britain blocks the French coast and threatens to search U.S. boats that are trading. France then does the same thing.
Attack on Chesapeake
- The Leopard, a British war ship, was off the coast of Virginia and stopped the U.S.S. Chesapeake
The British began searching U.S. ships for any deserters from the British Royal Navy
- The British captain wants to search the U.S. ship, and the Chesapeake's captain says no
- The British open fire, destroy the ship and kill 3 crew members
Americans react and want Jefferson to declare war on Britain, but he wants to do something different
The Embargo Act
- Jefferson decided to punish Britain by not trading with them and not trading with any other countries (in case the British indirectly traded with them)
- This failed! Britain went on to trade with Latin America instead of the U.S.
- Our economy suffered and made other countries mad at us
Jefferson Leaves Office
- Sticking to Washington's precedent, Jefferson decided not to run again
- Federalists nominated Charles Pinckney
-Republicans nominated James Madison (he wins)
- American settlers continued moving into Native American land
Battle of Tippecanoe
- William Henry Harrison, Indiana governor, was afraid Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet would gather their confederacy and ally with the British in Canada
- One leader, Tecumseh, formed a confederacy of Native Americans in the Northwest
- Harrison attacks the Native Americans, kills the Prophet and defeats them in battle
- A group of young Republicans who became popular and pressured Madison for war with Britain
- Led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun
- Made up of men from the West and South
- Madison asks Congress to declare war on Britain in 1812
- Meanwhile, Britain changes their policy and stops searching U.S. ships, but it takes a while for the message to get back to Washington D.C.
- U.S. decide to invade Canada, but the British start first and win three major battles in Michigan
- The most important was the loss at Detroit
The War Ends
- Americans and British make a peace deal called the Treaty of Ghent
The Battle of New Orleans
- Word of peace did not get to the South in time
- British arrived into New Orleans, but General Andrew Jackson was waiting with a strategy
- Americans were hiding behind cotton bales, which absorbed British bullets
- About 300 British were killed, and Jackson was a war hero
Campaigning in 1800
- Reduced the national debt by:
- cutting down on military spending
- no federal taxes
- gov. money would come from customs duties and selling western lands
- Marbury asks the Supreme Court to deliver his commission, but they said no because they don't have jurisdiction
Americans on the High Seas
- Many American merchant ships were sailing around the world for profits
- Since France and Britain were at war, there was little competition
- ended up taking American soldiers as well
- This loss made the Native Americans ally with the British
- John Adams
- So he sends a rep. to France with an offer of $2 million
- France owned Haiti, but Toussaint-Louverture led a revolt and kicked out the French
- So, he decided to sell it to Jefferson