Send the link below via email or IMCopy
Present to your audienceStart remote presentation
- Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
- People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
- This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
- A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
- Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article
Do you really want to delete this prezi?
Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.
Make your likes visible on Facebook?
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.
The Jefferson Era
Transcript of The Jefferson Era
The Election of 1800
- Federalists nominate John Adams and Charles Pinckney as his VP
- Republicans nominate Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as his VP
- Believed in "a wise and frugal government"
- Wanted to reduce the size and power of the federal government
- Supported a French philosophy called "laissez faire"
Jefferson as President
Judiciary Act of 1801
- Before Jefferson was President, Adams passed this act which set up jobs for 16 regional judges
- Adams and his chief justice John Marshall worked quickly to appoint the judges before Jefferson became President; nicknamed the "midnight judges"
- The paperwork had not been delivered to some judges when Jefferson becomes President
- He told his Secretary of State, James Madison, not to deliver the papers (called commissions) - one of them was to go to William Marbury
- Marbury sues Madison for not delivering the commission
Marbury v Madison
- Supreme court establishes judicial review (judicial branch can review things done by Executive and Legislative Branches)
- Madison wins!
- Many settlers moved out west through the Appalachian Mountains and were known as pioneers
The French Threat
- 1802, Spain makes a secret deal with France to transfer the Louisiana Territory (they don't allow any more trade on the Mississippi River)
- Jefferson believes that France's leader, Napoleon Bonaparte, wants to create an empire in America.
Revolt in Santo Domingo
- Napoleon had wanted this island as a naval base for trade and supplies in the Caribbean, but now that France didn't own it, he didn't have use for Louisiana.
- France said they would sell the Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
- Jefferson accepted and the U.S. doubled in size!
Lewis and Clark
Jefferson asked Congress to fund a scientific expedition past the Mississippi River and try to find a Northwest Passage
- Assembled a crew and left St. Louis in 1804
- They kept a journal of what they saw along the way
- Sacajawea, a Native American girl became their guide
- They finally made it to the Pacific Ocean and both took separate routes back east (made it back by 1806)
- Zebulon Pike was also sent by Jefferson out west to explore
- He traveled into Colorado and found the Rocky Mountains (first peak named Pike's Peak)
- He also traveled through the Great Plains, Rio Grande, northern Mexico and Texas
Federalists Plan to Secede
- Federalists wanted to withdraw from the Union and were afraid the new states that would form from the Louisiana Territory would be Republican
- Federalists decided to support Aaron Burr who was running for NY governor, once he knew Jefferson didn't want him as VP
- Federalists "needed" NY to be part of their new Northern Confederacy in New England
Burr and Hamilton
- When Burr loses NY, he blames Alexander Hamilton and challenges him to a duel
- Burr shoots Hamilton and runs away to avoid arrest
Piracy on the Seas
- Pirates off the African Coast demanded tributes from the merchant ships to let them pass safely into the harbor
War with Tripoli
- Tripoli wanted a higher tribute, but Jefferson said no, so they declare war on the U.S.
Neutral Rights Violated
- America remained neutral with both France and Britain, but they both wanted the U.S to pick a side
- Many European countries would pay, but Jefferson didn't like this idea
- Tripoli seizes the U.S.S. Philadelphia and jail the crew
- Captain Stephen Decatur burned the ship so Tripoli couldn't use it
- War ends a year later, and Tripoli agrees to stop asking for a tribute but requires $60,000 for the prisoners
- Britain blocks the French coast and threatens to search U.S. boats that are trading. France then does the same thing.
Attack on Chesapeake
- The Leopard, a British war ship, was off the coast of Virginia and stopped the U.S.S. Chesapeake
The British began searching U.S. ships for any deserters from the British Royal Navy
- The British captain wants to search the U.S. ship, and the Chesapeake's captain says no
- The British open fire, destroy the ship and kill 3 crew members
Americans react and want Jefferson to declare war on Britain, but he wants to do something different
The Embargo Act
- Jefferson decided to punish Britain by not trading with them and not trading with any other countries (in case the British indirectly traded with them)
- This failed! Britain went on to trade with Latin America instead of the U.S.
- Our economy suffered and made other countries mad at us
Jefferson Leaves Office
- Sticking to Washington's precedent, Jefferson decided not to run again
- Federalists nominated Charles Pinckney
-Republicans nominated James Madison (he wins)
- American settlers continued moving into Native American land
Battle of Tippecanoe
- William Henry Harrison, Indiana governor, was afraid Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet would gather their confederacy and ally with the British in Canada
- One leader, Tecumseh, formed a confederacy of Native Americans in the Northwest
- Harrison attacks the Native Americans, kills the Prophet and defeats them in battle
- A group of young Republicans who became popular and pressured Madison for war with Britain
- Led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun
- Made up of men from the West and South
- Madison asks Congress to declare war on Britain in 1812
- Meanwhile, Britain changes their policy and stops searching U.S. ships, but it takes a while for the message to get back to Washington D.C.
- U.S. decide to invade Canada, but the British start first and win three major battles in Michigan
- The most important was the loss at Detroit
The War Ends
- Americans and British make a peace deal called the Treaty of Ghent
The Battle of New Orleans
- Word of peace did not get to the South in time
- British arrived into New Orleans, but General Andrew Jackson was waiting with a strategy
- Americans were hiding behind cotton bales, which absorbed British bullets
- About 300 British were killed, and Jackson was a war hero
Campaigning in 1800
- Reduced the national debt by:
- cutting down on military spending
- no federal taxes
- gov. money would come from customs duties and selling western lands
- Marbury asks the Supreme Court to deliver his commission, but they said no because they don't have jurisdiction
Americans on the High Seas
- Many American merchant ships were sailing around the world for profits
- Since France and Britain were at war, there was little competition
- ended up taking American soldiers as well
- This loss made the Native Americans ally with the British
- John Adams
- So he sends a rep. to France with an offer of $2 million
- France owned Haiti, but Toussaint-Louverture led a revolt and kicked out the French
- So, he decided to sell it to Jefferson