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Physics Presentation - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna

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Mateusz Maksymiuk

on 9 January 2015

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Transcript of Physics Presentation - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna

Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna
Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics
Research about various areas of nuclear physics
Close cooperation with JINR
Research mainly about
quantum field theory
and the three areas of physics in JINR as well as modern mathematical physics
Ten specialized seminars
working on daily basis
Organizes more than
10 conferences per year
Trainings for young scientists and students
Works on improving international cooperations

What is a synchrocyclotron?
A synchrocyclotron is a variation of a cyclotron, where the frequency of the electric field is varying, in order to compensate the relativistic mass gain effects, while the particles are approaching a velocity compared to the speed of light. Unlike, a usual cyclotron, a synchrocyclotron varies the frequeny of the electric field, while the cyclotron keeps it constant. The first synchrocyclotron was developed in 1945, in Soviet Union.
History and Information about Joint Institute For Nuclear Research
Early History
The history of Dubna as a scentific town (наукоград) began just after the end of World War II. In 1947, the scientists associated with Igor Kurchatov, began working on a charged particle accelerator. The

was build within the years and successfully opened in 1949. At the time, the synchtocyclotron was considered to be one of the
largest particle accelerators avalible
, therefore early estabilishing Dubna as a scientific town.
Institute of Nuclear Problems
Soon after the synchrocyclotron was built, the Institute of Nuclear Problems was founded by the physicists
Mikhail Meshcheryakov
Venedikt Dzhelepov
. The main idea behind the foundation of the institute, was to establish the nuclear research programme with use of the
synchrocyclotron with the energy of 680 MeV
. Right after the institute was formed, the physicist
Vladimir Veksler
(who created the first synchrocyclotron) formed the Electrophysical laboratory, with plans to build a new accelerator with would exceed the parameters of any other accelerators present at the time.
The formation of the institute
The particular area of nuclear physics continued to develop rapidly throughout the 50s, which led to the formation of different institutes, as opposed to working in inaccessible laboratories. This was the direct cause of the formation of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, which occured on
March 26, 1956
, together with the offical consideration of being an educational institute, with one of the founders being
Georgy Flerov
. Soon after the institute was officially established, the speicalists from 12 different countries came to the institute in order to cooperate and form an
international educational research centre
. The main idea in this case was to combine the international knowledge in order to form a research centre and discover the areas of nuclear physics.

The aims of the institute (as quoted from the JINR official website)
"to carry out theoretical and experimental investigations on adopted scientific topics";

"to organize the exchange of scientists in carrying out research, of ideas and information by publishing scientific papers, by organizing conferences, symposia etc";

"to promote the development of intellectual and professional capabilities of scientific personnel";

"to maintain contacts with other national and international scientific organizations and institutions to ensure the stable and mutually beneficial cooperation";

"to use the results of investigations of applied character to provide supplementary financial sources for fundamental research by implementing them into industrial, medical and technological developments".
International Cooperation

After it's formation in 1956, the institute has been becoming an increasingly large research centre, and over time it became one of the most prominent physical centres in the world. The scientists arrive from
18 different countries
and cooperate in order to increase the understanding about the world by exchanging international ideas. Currently there are about
people working in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, with about
1000 being professional scientists
2000 being engineers
as well as
910 qualified PhDs
. Furthermore, in 1957 the JINR was officially accepted by the United Nations. Except for the 18 countries , Dubna research centre cooperates with over
712 research centres in 57 countries
around the world.
List of cooperating countries
Czech Republic
North Korea
Russian Federation
* The JINR also has made agreements with Germany (theoretical, heavy ion and condensed matter physics), Hungary (condensed matter physics) and Italy (nuclear physics).
There are 3 main divisions of the JINR:
Physics of elementary particles
Nuclear physics
Condensed matter physics
Physics of elementary particles
Physics of elementary particle deals with the origins and the interactions between the particles as well as the discovery of their structures.
This area in physics, usually deals with the
Standard Model theory
, which describes the interactions between elementary particles.
Within this area, most experiments are carried out using particle accelerators in JINR
JINR also cooperates with CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), DESY (Hamburg, Germany) and many other research centres in order to use their particle accelerators to conduct research.
What is Standard Model theory?
A Standardd Model theory is a physical theory that describes the interactions between the elementary particles, including weak, strong and electromagnetic interactions. The development of Standard Model theory occurred throughout the 20th century, and was finally given it's name in the 1970s. The model is a collaborative effort of international scientists and the latest discoveries include W and Z bosons in 1983, tau neutrino in 2000 and finally the Higgs boson in 2013. Although the Standard Model is often referred as being the "theory of almost everything", it does have some disadvantages, due to simplified assumptions as well as the lack of gravitational theory, which makes the model incomplete. Such problems with model cause some phenomena to be unexplained, therefore establishing a new area of science known as the Physics beyond the Standard Model, that deals with such disadvantages of the standard model.
Nuclear Physics
The area of nuclear physics at JINR deals with the concepts of nuclear reactions, functions of the nuclei and creation of new elements.
The new elements that are created are mostly trans uranium and ultra heavy elements.
JINR is officially considered to be one of the leading research centres in the world in the area of nuclear physics.
Condensed Matter Physics
Condensed matter physics deals with the physical properties of condensed matter and uses the laws of fundamental physics in order to understand these properties.
Such area of physics uses the laws of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics to understand the condensed matter.
In condensed matter physics, one of the studies includes the electromagnetic interactions between particles and atoms.
It is considered to be one of the fastest developing areas of physics
Except for the three main areas of phyiscs in JINR, the institute has a
Committee of Plenipotentiary Representatives
, which includes all of the member countries governing the institute. There is also a
Scientific Council
that carries out different activities, as requested by the CPR, as well as takes care of the experimental results and reaches conclusions of scientific research. Within the institute, there are also
8 laboratories
that specialise in different areas of science.
Dubna University
Except for being an international research centre, JINR has also became a good option for the students of Moscow State University in order to study one of the areas of physics in Dubna. The students, of usually
years 4 and 5
have an opportunity to study and conduct
research for 2 years in Dubna
and receive the full university classification in different areas of physics.
Full graduate courses in Dubna include:
Nuclear physics
Particle physics
Technical physics
Condensed matter physics
Cooperation with CERN
The JINR has had a long relationship with
CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research
. The cooperation includes discoveries in the areas of experimental and theoretical aspects of high energy physics, as well as the cooperation in using the Large Hadron Collider in Geneva.
The JINR also designs new detectors for the LHC
What is a Large Hadron Collider?
The Large Hadron Collider is a particle collider, developed by CERN, which is considered the highest energy collider ever built and completed between 1998 and 2008. The aim of the LHC is to predict and test different theories concerning particle and energy physics. One of the particles confirmed by the experimental data from LHC was the Higgs particle in 2013. LHC is considered to be an important matter in Physics beyond the Standard model and the JINR contributes in designing new detectors for the LHC.
What can we find in Dubna?


The Joint Institute for Nuclear Research is structured in 8 different laboratories specializing in different areas of physics.
Veksler and Baldin Laboratory of Higher Energy Physics
Associated with V. Veksler and P. Lebedev
Became a part of JINR on
March 26, 1957
Involved in the building of synchrocylclotron
In 1957, accelerated protons to the energy of 10 GeV
Between 1968 and 1997, A. Baldin started
experiments on relativistic nuclear physics
with production of particles in nuclear reactions
Until 2007, a system of
extracting beams from accelerated particles
was created and used for research
Currently, the institute carries out research on the topic of hot and dense strongly interacting QCD matter
Dzhelepov Laboratory of Nuclear Problems
Named after Dzhepelov, one of the founders of Institute of Nuclear Problems
680 MeV synchrocyclotron in 1947
Involved in creating the first clinical complex in Russia to
use the synchrocyclotron to cure cancer and be used for space medicine
9 scientific divisions, a special Phasotron division, design division and 3 auxillary disivions with a total of
690 people
working in the laboratory
The laboratory mainly focuses on
nuclear structures
, however it also covers condensed matter problems and particle physics.
The laboratory is also involved in the process of building new and improving particle accelerators.
Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions
Named after
Georgy Flerov, the founder and director for more than 30 years.
Founded in
One of the leading laboratories in nuclear physics, constantly improving it's accelerators.
Known for
synthesis of new nuclei and creation of elements
(105 named Dubnium)
The laboratory uses accelerators to produce radioactive ion beams.
Also uses accelerators to carry out
radioisotopic and radioanalytical investigations.
There are
research scientists and
engineers working in FLNR.
There are also
4 heavy ion accelerators and 9 major multifunctioal setups.
Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics
Known for the discovery of
ultracold neutrons
Scientists from more than 20 countries participate in over
200 projects per year
Uses neutrons to discover the aspects of condensed matter, including it's structure and dynamics
Provides discoveries useful for engineering, technology and pharmacology
The machinery at FLNP includes
IBR-2 pulsed fast reactor
and Intense Resonance Neutron source.
Employs more than

50 PhDs
15 doctors of science
and emphasizes the young scientists.
Cooperates with
200 institutes in 40 countries
around the world.
What are ultracold neutrons?
Ultracold neutrons are a type of free neutrons that can be stored in traps that are made of specific materials, as long as these materials can reflect the ultracold neutrons at any angle of incidence.
Founded in
August 1966
Employs 268 workers with
159 regular workers, 109 employees with short-term contracts out of which 11 are professors, 27 PhDs and 58 candidates of science.
LIT cooperates with other laboratories in providing and regulating the
information technology
aspect for the JINR.
Laboratory of Information Technologies
Uses accelerators to
solve problems in radiation biology
Studies the effects of ionizing radiation on human cells including the
possible DNA damages
Carries out research in areas such as
Solves problems including the effects of
heavy ion irradiation
on human retina
Laboratory of Radiation Biology
Discoveries in Dubna
University Centre
Associated with
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology
Includes four computer classrooms, four auditoriums, two server rooms and physics practicum.
full graduate programs
in different areas of physics.
Has an annual enrollment of
120 students.
IBR - 2
Produces one of the most intense pulse neutron flux at the moderator surface, with a power of 1850 MW
Ecologically friendly, very little energy consumption compared to other reactors
Usually operates in a 12 cycle, following which it is shut down for some time in order to be prepared for other experiments. There are also longer maintenance breaks, once every 9 years
What is a neutron flux?
A neutron flux is a value that shows the total distance traveled by all neutrons in a given unit of time and volume. Such a quantity is often used in nuclear reactor physics.
An isochronous cyclotron used to accelerate heavy ions, up to 145Z^2/A MeV energy, with a beam intensity ranging from 10^8 to 10^9 ions.
U-400 and U-400n
An isochronous accelerator used to accelerate nuclei to the energy of 650Z^2/A MeV with beam intensity between 10^12 and 10^14 ions.
U-400n makes it possible to accelerate ions in uranium in the energy between 120-20 MeV per nucleon.
Nuclotron is the currently constructed super conducting accelerator which would allow to accelerate hydrogen into uranium at the energy between 6 and 7 GeV per nucleon with an intensity of 10^13 to 10^8 particles per pulse.
An accelerator of 680 MeV protons
There are 10 beam channels avalible for the investigations using protons, neutrons, pions and muons.
There are also 5 beam channels that can be used for medical experiments
Trans uranium elements
Information on trans uranium elements
What are trans uranium elements?
Trans uranium elements are a type of chemical elements, which have atomic numbers that are greater than 92. The main characteristics of trans uranium elements are their
radioactive decay
into other elements. Such elements have a half life that is shorter than the age of the Earth, therefore traces of these are being difficult to find in nature.
List of trans uranium elements

93 Neptunium NP
94 plutonium Pu
95 americium Am
96 curium Cm
97 berkelium Bk
98 californium Cf
99 einsteinium Es
100 fermium Fm
101 mendelevium Md
102 nobelium No
103 lawrencium Lr
Transactinide elements:

104 rutherfordium Rf
105 dubnium Db
106 seaborgium Sg
107 bohrium Bh
108 hassium Hs
109 meitnerium Mt
110 darmstadtium Ds
111 roentgenium Rg
112 copernicium Cn
113 ununtrium Uut
114 flerovium Fl
115 ununpentium Uup
116 livermorium Lv
117 ununseptium Uus
118 ununoctium Uuo
Chemical series including trans uranium elements
Includes 15 metallic elements with atomic numbers ranging between 89 and 103, with the first element being actinium and the final one being lawrencium.
All actinides are radioactive elements and use the radioactive decay process to release energy.
Due to their radioactivity, these elements are often used in the production of nuclear weapons or used in nuclear power stations.
Out of these elements, uranium and thorium are the most present in nature, while the trans uranium elements of these series are almost absent in nature.
Transactinide elements:
Chemical elements with numbers greater than actinides, with lawrencium being the heaviest.
All of the transactinide elements have electrons in the 6d subshell as well very short half-lives that can be e measured in seconds (except Dubnium)
Just like actinides, transactinides are radioactive and release energy through radioactive decay, however such elements cannot be found in nature and in order to create them, there needs to be a synthesis in the laboratory.
Characteristics and origin of trans uranium elements
Trans uranium elements are radioactive and release energy through radioactive decay, however unlike uranium and other radioactive elements
they cannot be found in nature.
This is mostly due to the fact that all of them have a
very short half-life,
which means that even if they were one of the particles present during Earth's formation, they would have decayed shortly after, due to the extremely short half-life. The only examples of trans uranium elements that can be found in nature would include their remains after atomic explosions.
Due to the fact that these elements may not be found in nature, they have to be
synthesized using particle accelerators
(such as the ones in JINR) or nuclear reactors.
Trans uranium elements are also known to be
expensive to produce,
which makes it much more difficult for the elements to be applied in different uses, such as atomic weapons.
Super-heavy elements
Super-heavy elements are the elements that have an
atomic number exceeding or equal to 104
(atomic number of Ruthenfordium).
However, all of the trans uranium elements might be known as super-heavy elements.
Most super-heavy elements are created using the technology of particle acceleration, where they are bombarded with elements.
Discoveries of trans uranium elements in Dubna
Discovery of Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium was discovered at the JINR in
The creation of Rutherfordium was a result of
neon-22 ions
bombarding a
The bombarded particles were later separated by
gradient thermal chromatography.
Although the results were suggesting the creation of Rutherfordium, the half-life was not yet found.
This led to the further studies at
University of California in Berkeley
, where the scientists synthesised Rutherfordium by using
ions to bombard
The scientists later measured the alpha decay of the element.
The 1969 synthesis from Berkeley was
confirmed in 1973.
Rutherfordium naming controversy
Soon after the discoveries by both American and Soviet research centres, there was a naming controversy concerning the new element. Due to the ongoing Soviet-Amercian conflict in the areas of science, the Russians came up with the name of
, a Russian nuclear physicist Igor Kurchatov, who is known as the "father or Russian atomic bomb". This caused controversy, mainly because the Americans, who synthesised the element in 1969 decided to name the newly created element after Ernest Ruthenford, the first discoverer of the atomic nucleus. The American version was finally accepted as official in 1989. Such controversy can be considered to be one of the examples of a scientific research and discovery conflict during the Cold War between USSR and USA.
Characteristics of Rutherfordium
Rutherfordium is a transition metal with an atomic number of
It is
radioactive metal
and therefore has harmful effects.
It is usually produced in very small amounts.
The colour of Ruthenfordium is not yet known and rutherfordium is not used anywhere as an element.
It has
10 isotopes
with mass numbers from
253 to 262
, with none of them being stable.
The half-lives of Rutherfordium range from
70 seconds
(Rf 261) to
6 hours
(Rf 268).
Discovery of Nobelium
The element was first discovered at the Nobel Institute in Sweden, in
The scientists at Nobel Institute used
carbon-13 particles
to bombard
Although the scientists did synthesize the element, they have later denied their claims and proposed background activity to be the source of their discovery.
In 1958, the scientists in Berkeley used a
heavy-ion accelerator
and have also claimed to have synthesized the element, which was characterized by a shorter half-life, however it did not reach the
8.5 MeV activity,
as discovered in Sweden.
Finally, in 1966 the scientists in FLNR in Dubna have detected a radioactive decay coming from a nucleus
with an approximate half-life of
50 s
as well as an emission level of
8.1 MeV,
therefore finally discovering nobelium, or as they have proposed, joliotium.
Furthermore, in 1956 Flerov's team in Dubna has actually discovered nobelium by bombardin plutonium with oxygen, however the success was not officially reported, leading to controversies surronding the discovery of this particular element.
People associated with Dubna
Characteristics of Nobelium
Nobelium is a trans uranium element with an atomic number of
and approximate atomic mass of
It has a half-life of
58 minutes.
Except for research and it's synthesis in laboratories, nobelium has
no industrial uses.
Just like other radioactive elements, nobelium is toxic and therefore cannot be suitable for any biological uses.
Nobelium also has isotopes, with the main one being
The element also has a boiling point at
1100.15 K,
being a solid at room temperature.
Discovery of Flerovium
Flerovium was discovered later than the previous elements, in
December 1998,
by a team led by
Yuri Oganessian.
At JINR, the scientists used
to bombard
therefore synthesising a new element.
This new element would later be detected during it's
alpha decay
with an observed half-life of 30 seconds.
Soon after the discovery, the element was known as the isotope
and the discovery was published a year later.
The experiment lasted for about
40 days
and required as much as
5*10^18 atoms of calcium
to bombard plutonium and create an atom of flevorium.

The name "flevorium"
Although the element was first discovered in 1998 and published in 1999, the name flevorium was finally given on May 30, 2012. Before, the element was commonly referred to as "element 114" instead of the actual name. Although the element's name might be associated with Georgy Flerov (Flyorov), one of the founders of JINR, the name was actually taken after the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions.
Flerovium characteristics
Flerovium is an element in group 14, with an
atomic number of 114.
Although it's melting and boiling points remain unknown, it is known to be a
solid at room temperature.

Flerovium has an atomic mass of
It is a very radioactive metal and just like other trans uranium elements it is not present in nature and it doesn't have any industrial or biological uses, due to it's reactivity.
Flerovium's main and only radioactive isotope in

Discovery of Dubnium
First discovered in
at JINR in Dubna.
The scientists bombarded
neon-22 ions,
therefore forming a reaction with
9.4 MeV
9.7 MeV alpha activity
Two years later, the scientists from Dubna used the process of gradient thermal chromatography to separate the products of the reaction.
Again, the scientists from Berkeley, California tried to prove and synthesize Dubnium by using
and bombarding it with
nitrogen-15 ions
. The team came to the conclusion with a decay energy equal to
9.1 MeV
and a half-life of 1.6 seconds.
However, in 1
971 JINR continued their process
and 5 years later they proved the existence of
dubnium-260 isotope
, leading to IUPAC accepting both discoveries.
Naming controversy
After the discovery of the element, the JINR wanted to give it a name of "nielsbohrium", after the Danish scientist Niels Bohr. However, the American team from Berkeley proposed to name element after the German chemist Otto Hahn, therefore giving it a name "hahnium". Finally, the IUPAC decided to give the name "Dubnium" to the 105th element, which was mainly due to IUPAC willing acknowledge Russian scientists in discovering the element. It was also due to the fact that American scientists from Berkeley already had many elements named according to their will, including berkelium, californium and americium.
Characteristics of Dubnium
Dubnium is an element in group 5 of the periodic table, with an atomic mass of
and RAM equal to
Although it's melting and boiling points have not yet been discovered, it is known that it is a
solid at room temperature.
Like other trans uranium elements, Dubnium has not actual uses in nature or industry and as an element it cannot be found in nature, meaning that it can only be
synthesised for educational and research reasons.
Also, like other trans uranium elements, dubnium is a highly radioactive metal.
It has an
isotope of dubnium-268, with a half-life of 1.2 days.

Discovery of Seaborgium
Discovered at the JINR in
June 1974.
Further discovered in Berkeley through synthesis of
oxygen-18 ions
eventually leading to alpha decay with an approximate half-life of 0.9 seconds.
Eventually, the name proposed by the American scientists was officially confirmed, naming the element after American chemist
Glenn T. Seaborg.

Characteristics of Seaborgium
Element in group 6, with an atomic number of
and RAM
Highly radioactive metal, only used for research purposes.
Solid at room temperature,
melting/boiling points remain unknown.
Other elements discovered involving facilities in Dubna
Livermorium - 2001
Unutrium - 2004
Ununpentium - 2004
Unonctium - 2006
Ununseptium - 2010
Interesting fact
By looking at the discoveries of the 5 elements presented above, it is quite clear to see a pattern of constant competition between Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna and the University of California in Berkeley. The pattern shows that once one of the institutions produces a discovery, the other one tries to either complete or repeat the discovery of the element. This has caused controversies surrounding not only the discoveries, but also the namings of the elements synthesized, which caused tension between scientists in both research centres. It is quite arguable that such observations can be considered to be a Soviet-American competition within the area of science, as both of these discoveries have been constantly recorded in histories of each of the countries. Another evidence could be possibly that USA and Russia have started working together in Dubna (such as in the discovery of unutrium, where the team was combined) after the Soviet Union has collapsed.
Antisigma-minus hyperon (sigma baryon)
The discovery
antisigma-minus hyperon
also known as sigma baryon was discovered in an investigation, where the Chinese nuclear physicist Wang Ganchang conducted an analysis of over
40,000 photographs
, and therefore discovering thousands of nuclear interactions taking place. The experiment used a
synchrophasotron of an energy equal to 10 GeV
. The reaction formed high energy mesons and in September of the following year
a new unstable particle was officially announced to have been discovered.
Scientists from Dubna
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank
The Sigma baryon
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank was born on
October 8, 1908 in Saint Petersburg.
In 1930, he graduated from the Moscow State University, where he became a professor in 1944.
Meanwhile he has also worked in the
Lebedev Physical Institute in USSR
Ilya Frank is best known for developing his
theory explaining the Cherenkov Radiation together with Igor Tamm, in 1934.
The theory stated that the radiation affect takes place when the charged particles first travel through an optically transparent medium and their speeds exceed the speed of light, causing a shock wave in the electromagnetic field.
Frank received a
Nobel Prize for Physics
regarding his discoveries.
He has also received multiple
Soviet awards
, such as the
Stalin Prize in 1946.
Since 1957, Ilya Frank was a
of the Laboratory of Neutron Physics, which had a developing IBR reactor at the time.
Georgy Nikolayevich Flerov
Georgy Flerov was born on
March 2, 1913 in Rostov-On-Don
and graduated from Leningrad Polytechnic Institute.
He is known for
writing a letter to Joseph Stalin
and informing him about the
lack of progress in nuclear fission in Western Europe
, suspecting a development of nuclear weapons.
Such information created controversy among Soviet authorities, leading the
USSR to start it's own project in designing and manufacturing an atomic bomb.
Except for initiating the atomic bomb project in the USSR, Flerov later became a
director and one of the founders of the JINR in Dubna, where he worked until 1989.
Flerov is also considered to be one of the major influences on the
discoveries of trans uranium elements
, as a vast majority of them was discovered during his work at JINR. He was also a team leader in the synthesis of the elements from
102 up to 107.
Due to Flerov's founding of the institute and influence on nuclear physics, an element
114 recieved the name flerovium
in honour of the physicist.
What is Cherenkov Radiation?
Cherenkov radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation that occurs when any charged particle with the speed of light passes through a medium that is dielectric (electrical insulator polarized by the presence of electric field). This causes ionization of the molecules, which later return to the ground state causing radiation. Such radiation was named after Pavel Cherenkov, who was the first to observe this kind of radiation. Ilya Frank, along with Igor Tamm have later developed a theory describing the radiation.
Alexander Mikhailovich Baldin
Baldin was born on
February 26, 1926 in Moscow
and studied in Lebedev Physical Institute since 1949, where he became a
PhD and a professor.
In 1968 he became a director of the Laboratory of High Energies in Dubna.
It is also arguable that Baldin was
involved in the development of Soviet nuclear weapons,
which are thought to have been produced in Dubna.
Venedikt Petrovich Dzhepelov
Dzhepelov was born on
April 12, 1913 in Moscow
and studied in Leningrad Polytechnic Institute.
He was a one of the
directors of JINR between 1956 and 1989
, during which he became a professor in 1961.
In 1966 he became a c
orrespondent of Russian Acedemy of Sciences.
Subatomic hadron particles
Can be either neutral or have a charge of
+1,-1 or +2.
They are made up of 3 quarks, including
2 up or down quarks and a third of a quark
The one third can be either bottom ,top, charm or strange.
The lifetime of sigma baryons is estimated to be about
5*10^25 seconds.
Neutrino Oscillation Hypothesis
In 1957, the Italian scientist at JINR,
Bruno Pontecorvo
produced a hypothesis, stating the theory about neutrino oscillations
Although the hypothesis was first stated in Dubna, it took many years to actually find a prove for this theory.
Association with Igor Kurchatov

Although Igor Kurchatov was not one of the scientists working in Dubna, he is still an important person to acknowledge when discussing scientists associated with JINR. As we know already, Georgy Flerov, the long-term director of the institute was the one who wrote a letter to Joseph Stailn, informing him about the possibilities of developing a nuclear bomb in Western Europe. In 1939, both Flerov and Kurchatov have studied the uranium chain reaction concept. in 1942, Kurchatov was chosen by the Soviet Academy of Sciences to be
the leader of the soviet atomic project.

Who was Igor Kurchatov?
Igor Kurchatov was a Soviet nuclear physicist. He was born in Simsky Zavod on Januar 12, 1903 and died in Moscow on February 7, 1960. As a nuclear physicits, Igor Kurchtov is known for being a leader in the soviet atomic bomb project, which was a result of lack of publications about nuclear physics in Western Europe. Except for being a leader of the atomic project, Kurchatov also had his own nuclear research team, and in 1939, he constructed the first cyclotron in Soviet Union.
Who was the Soviet Atomic bomb project?
The Soviet Atomic Bomb Project was a nuclear program between 1943 and 1949, which began after Flerov's letter to Joseph Stalin. After the initiation of the program, Igor Kurchatov became the scientific leader, while Lavrentiy Beria became the military leader. Due to the secrecy of the program, almost no information was revealed to the public and the spies worked on obtaining information to improve the program.
Information about Dubna
Dubna is a town in Russia, located about 125 kilometres north of Moscow, within the Moscow Oblast. The time is internationally known to be a "science town" (наукоград), which is due to Dubna being famous for it's Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, opened in 1957. Since then, the town has been recognised as one of the world's centres in nuclear physics.

Except for the JINR, Dubna is located close to Volga river, therefore having a famous hydroelectric power station, opened in 1932.

The city has a population of 73,357.

Sources used for the presentation
Images: Google images in Prezi

(Genreal Information about JINR)

(Laboratories and machinery)

(Physical/theoretical information)


(Transuranium particles)
Royal Society of Chemistry website http://www.rsc.org/periodic-table

(People in Dubna)
Full transcript