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1. Describe the role of vitamin D and folic acid and also th
Transcript of 1. Describe the role of vitamin D and folic acid and also th
1. Describe the role of vitamin D and folic acid and also the relationship to skin color and sunlight.
Vitamin D is a critical component of human biochemistry and essential for bone growth and maintenance. It also ensures that blood has sufficient levels of calcium and phosphorus. Your body can make vitamin D on it's own and is crucial for different systems.
When the skin is exposed to the right kind of sunlight, the body converts cholesterol to vitamin D.
Folic acid helps cells divide and replicate DNA.
2. Explain how wearing sunglasses can help give you a sunburn.
3. Explain why Inuit Eskimos, despite living in polar regions with little sunlight, remain dark-skinned like their equatorial ancestors.
The Inuit, people in the subarctic part of the world, are dark- skinned, despite the limited sunlight of their home.The reason they don’t evolve into lighter skin individuals is because their diet is full of fatty ﬁsh which just happens to be one of the only foods in nature that is full of vitamin D. They eat this fish for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.
5. What is the ACHOO syndrome? How did sneezing help our ancestors?
Autosomal dominant compelling helioopthalmic outburst syndrome causes uncontrolled sneezing when someone is exposed to bright light, usually sunlight, after being in the dark. It helped our ancestors clear out molds or microbes that might have been lodged in their noses or upper respiratory tract.
6. Explain why winter and naturally dark skin are a bad combination for someone in a "Who has the lowest cholesterol?" contest.
The evolution of dark skin to protect our stores of folate and the evolution of a genetic trigger to increase cholesterol to maximize vitamin D production in the bright, strong sun. Without enough sunlight to convert the additional cholesterol in their dark skin, they end up having too much cholesterol and not enough vitamin D.
By: Anjuli Fink & Brightyn Patterson
Survival of the Sickest
Chapter III: "The Cholesterol Also Rises"
The Inuit's are dark-skinned despite the lack of sunlight in the subarctic region. They do not need lighter skin to ensure Vitamin D production because their diet consists of rich fatty fish containing a lot of the vitamin.
9.What's so fishy about the Inuits' skin color?
7. Why do we need Vitamin D? Cholesterol? Folic acid?
Ensures growth of healthy bones in children and continuation in adults as well as sufficient levels of calcium and phosphorous in the blood. It's crucial to the function of the heart, nervous system, clotting process, and immune system. It also protects us from many diseases.
Required to make and maintain cell membranes, send messages from the brain, and protects us from diseases. It helps produce estrogen, testosterone, and other hormones and is an essential component to the manufacturing of Vitamin D.
Folic Acid (Folate):
Helps body to replicate DNA when cells divide and helps produces red blood cells (very important during pregnancy).
8. Briefly describe the connection between each of the following pairs of concepts:
Much less sunlight reaches the optic nerve, much less is sent to the pituitary gland. This means much less much less melanocyte (stimulating hormone) is released and much less melanin is produced. This will cause a sunburn that could have been prevented by not wearing sunglasses.
Tanning beds/birth defects
: Tanning beds are known to decrease folic acid in pregnant women which will then cause birth defects in the fetus.
: When you wear sunglasses, less sunlight reaches the optic nerve and much less is sent to the pituitary gland. This causes sunburn since less melanocyte and melanin is produced.
: Hypertension or high blood pressure is most common in African Americans. Because the slave trade came with poor conditions, it caused an unnatural selection for the ability to retain salt.
10. Explain the good and the bad of ApoE4.
4. What is the ApoE4 gene? What is its role in the body?
(Number 8 Continued)
Apolipoprotein E (Apo E4) exists in the dark-skinned population groups and is common in northern Europe. It ensures that the amount of cholesterol in the body is cranked up allowing it’s carriers to produce Vitamin D despite the lack of sunlight they receive. It can actually put the general population at a higher risk for heart disease and strokes, and Caucasians at a higher risk for Alzheimer’s.
Asian flush/drinking water:
"Asian flush" is caused when people of Asian decent consume alcohol, their body deoxifies it, and then extracts calories from it. Many Asians have the genetic variation ALDH2*2 that is more apparent in Asia than Europe because of clean drinking water. Poor sanitary conditions forced population groups to find new ways of providing clean water. Europe felt the pressure to have the ability to drink, break down, and deoxify alcohol while Asia didn't as much.
The evolutionary pressure found in different ecosystems and ways of life most likely accounted for the differences in physical appearances in humans. Skull shape may have evolved to have the function of facilitating storage and releasing heat due to a specific climate.
Exposed, dense hair on the forearms and legs of humans may have been a defense adaptation against malaria carried by mosquitoes. Usually, the densest hair is concentrated in the areas with the highest risk of Malaria. In Africa, dense hair is prone to sickle-cell anemia but can offer some protection against Malaria.
Puts people at a greater risk for heart disease and stroke
ex: In Caucasians, there's a higher risk for Alzheimer's.
Ensures that cholesterol flowing through the blood is increased to it's maximum potential