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Chapter 4 & 5 Main Ideas
Transcript of Chapter 4 & 5 Main Ideas
Chapter 4: Learner Differences and Learning Needs
Chapter 5: Language Development, Language Diversity, and Immigrant Education
Chapter 4: Intelligence
The concept of Intelligence is important. It also can be controversial. The text began discussing the advantages and disadvantages with labels. It discussed how labels can help teachers develop appropriate instructional strategies. When using labels it is important to not label the student, but to label their disability. "Person-first" language discusses the importance to state "student with learning disabilities," not "learning disabled student." The text also discussed disability and handicap, different theories of intelligence, such as Gardner's view and Sternberg's theory of intelligence. The chapter also talked about what a g was, which s also known as general intelligence. Intelligence is measured through indicidual tests and group tests. The final thing this topic discussed was gender differences in cognitive abilities. Girls seem to do better on verbal tests. Males seem to do better on tasks that require mental rotation of objects.
Chapter 4: Learning and Thinking Styles
In this main idea the text discusses learning styles and learning preferences. The different between the two is learning styles are the characteristic ways a person approaches learning. Whereas learning preferences are individual preferences of particular learning odes and environment. It also talked about deep verses surface processing. Individuals who have a deep processing approach see the learning activities as a means for understanding an underlying meaning. However, a surface processing approach focus on memorizing the learning material, but do not understand them.
Chapter 5: The Development of Language
All children learn their native language unless severe deprivation or physical problems interfere. Many factors play a rol in language development, like biological, cultural, and experiential. Chapter 5 provided a table of milestones of early childhood language and ways to encourage development. It also discussed sounds and pronunciation, vocabulary and meaning, and grammar and syntax. It distinguished what pragmatics and metalinguistic awareness is. Pragmatics is knowledge about how to use language. Whereas metalinguistic awareness, knowledge about your own use of language and how language works. This begins around age 5 or 6 and grows throughout life.
Chapter 5: Diversity in Language Development
Chapter 5 also talked about learning a second language. Someone who masters their first language and then adds a second or third language they are additive bilingualism. However, if a person loses their first language when adding a second one they they experience subtractive bilingualism. Children who are bilingual they increase cognitive abilities in such areas as concept formation, creativity, theory of mind, cognitive flexibility, and understanding that printed words are symbols for language.
Chapter 4: Differences and the Law
The text described the main legal requirements that pertain to students with disabilities. It discussed how the law protect the rights of students with special needs and their parents. It also talked about Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which prevents discrimination against people with disabilities in any program thta receives federal money. An example of this is public schools.
Chapter 4: Students with Learning Challenges
Chapter 4 also discussed learning disabilities, ADHA, and common communication disorders. It also provided information about the best approaches for students with disorders, warning signs, and accomodations. It discussed different disorders and disabilities, such as physical, intellectual, visual, and hearing. This chapter covered a lot of information that I did not think about until after reading. It is important information to know.
Chapter 4: Students who are Gifted and Talented
It is not just students with disabilities that teachers need to understand. They also need to know about gifted and talented students. Chapter 4 covers characteristics of gifted students. Some of these characteristics are: learn easily and rapidly, retain what they have lethingsarned, use common sense and practical knowledge, know about many the other students don't use a large number of words easily and accurately. The chapter also discusses how acceleration in learning is a useful approach for gifted students. Skipping grades may even be practical for gifted students.
Chapter 5: Dialect Differences in the Classroom
Chapter five covered what a dialect is and how teachers should take dialects into account. A dialect is any variety of language spoken by a particual group. Everyone speaks in dialect because there is no one absolute standard English. The best approach seems to be to focus on understanding the students and to accept their language as a valid and correct system, but to teach the alternative forms of English.
Chapter 5: Teaching Immigrant Students and English language Learners
When discussing this topic in chapter 5 the text started off by distinguishing the terms immigrant and refugee. Immigrants are people who voluntarily leave their country to become permanent residents in a new place. Refugees are a special group of immigrants who also relocate voluntarily, but they are fleeing their home country because it is not safe. Then it goes on to discuss Generation 1.5, which are students who characterisitics, educational experiences, and language fluencis are somewhere in between those of students born in the U.S. and students who are recent immigrants. It also discussed related names to English learners, such as limited-English proficient (LEP), English language learners (ELL), and English as a Second Language (ESL).
Chapter 5: Special Challenges: English Language Learners with Disabilities and Special Gifts.
At the end of chapter 5 the text discussed English language learners with disabilities. The first thing that needs to be done is use the best teaching approaches and incorporate instruction that focus on both subject matter learning and English language development. If the student does not gain progress then testing should be referred.