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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children

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Simon Li

on 15 December 2010

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Transcript of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children
By: Raymond Khanano and... Simon Li A Medical Case Study Presentation [Case #24] Known Symptoms Include... Excessive Bleeding When Cut. Routine Nosebleeds Short of Breath &
Fatigued Joint/Bone Pains Tiny red spots on skin The Disease Definition:
-Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the white blood cells, the cells in the body that normally fight infections. How the disease work:
-The red blood cells and platelets are less healthy because of the infected abnormal white blood cells, and so without enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to various parts of the body, the patient will get tired and fatigued easily, and without healthy platelets, blood cannot clot as easily, so the patient will have excessive bleeding. Possible medical conditions or diseases -Hemophilia (excessive bleeding due to problems with the blood clotting process.)

-Arthritis ( Joint Pains, in some cases mutation and deformation of bone)

-Scurvey (rotting teeth and bleeding gums due to lack of vitamin C)

-Chicken Pox (red spots on the skin)

-Iron Deficient (Often tired due to lack of oxygen because of iron deficient RBC) Our Case Study:

Patient is a 5 year old girl who is considered a tomboy.
Lately, she has been getting bruises and bleeds excessively when she gets cut.
At other times, she faces shortness of breath, and joint or bone pain.
When she went to the dentist they found she had swollen gums and they would bleed easily.
She also has odd red pigments on her skin and appears to be pale. Treatments: At the moment there are two main treatments for ALL, which are the same for most cancers: Chemotherapy: The process of using chemicals to kill cancerous cells. The goal of Chemotherapy is to kill cancerous cells that divide rapidly; however, there are are cells in the human body that will anturally divide rapidly such as bone amrrow cells, cells in the digestive tract and hair follicle cells. The most common side affects of chemo are lowered blood cell production, inflamation of the intestinal tract and hair loss. Radiation Therapy: The use of ionizing radiation to control malignant cells. Depending on the state of the patient Radiation therapy might not always be the cure to their ailment. It can be used as a temporary solution from the symptoms (palliative treatment), or it can be used to survive the condition and possible cure in the future (therapeutic treament). Other Treatments: Other ways of treating ALL can be through the use of steroids or bone marrow/stem cell transplants Prognosis Canadian Contributions to Leukemia Local Help Cancer Connection Canadian Cancer Society Hotline Credit Valley hospital Leukemia and Lymphoma Society of Canada The Canadian Cancer Society is by far the alrgest and most oragnized NGO that is involved with Cancer support and research. They have a hotline for cancer patients who seek support on all aspects of cancer such as: treatments, coping with cancer, life after cancer, and so on. Their main office is staioned on St. CLair Avenue, Toronto. Credit Valley Hospital, located right here in Mississauga has a cancer research centre. In this centre, they have a cancer resource section where patients can come and study different forms of litterature revolving around cancer. They also have a chemotherapy teaching class, where patients and their families who are about to undergo chemotherapy can come and learn about the treatment. The LLSC is a volunteer driven organization that works to help promote the awareness of blood cancers, early detetcion, and the methods of treating cancer. They have group meetings for peer support as well as a hotline where an indiviaul can receive support from someone 1-to-1 over the phone. They are stationed in Lansing Square, Toronto. The prognosis factors in ALL are currently being studied and researched, and there is no clear-cut answer. This also applies to the other 3 main types of leukemia as well. Survival Rates have greatly improved, however, over the past years due to increased effectiveness of chemical treatment. This rate has gone from 0% to 25-75%. These varrie greatly between everyone. Ethnicity, age at diagnosis, white blood cell count at diagnosis, genetic disorders, and how far the cancer spread are all different factors affecting this number. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent childhood cancers and affects lymphocytes, the cells in the body that normally fight infections. While extensive research has been conducted over the years to understand this type of cancer, deciphering the complex process responsible for transforming normal cells into cancerous cells remains a challenge. In a recent study, Trang Hoang and her team defined, for the first time, the mechanism behind three cancer-causing genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The findings offer insight on the complex interaction between the genes and their contributions to leukemia, thereby providing the foundation for the design of more effective targeted therapies. Trang Hoang and her team defined, for the first time, the mechanism behind three cancer-causing genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The findings offer insight on the complex interaction between the genes and their contributions to leukemia, thereby providing the foundation for the design of more effective targeted therapies. Trang Hoang, Principal Investigator at the Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer (IRIC) and Full Professor in the Department of Pharmacology at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Montréal Causes/Incidence/Risk Factors In acute leukemia, cancerous cells multiply quickly and replace normal cells. Cancerous cells take over normal parts of the bone marrow, often causing low blood counts . Most cases of ALL have no obvious cause. However, the following may play a role in the development of leukemia:

* Certain chromosome problems
* Radiation exposure or being exposed to x-rays before birth
* Past treatment with chemotherapy drugs
* Receiving a bone marrow transplant
* Toxins such as benzene

Persons with Down syndrome or other genetic disorders, or who have a brother or sister with leukemia are at increased risk for ALL. ALL is more prevalent in developed countries than in the developing ones. The magnitude of the disease appears to correlate with the socio-economic status.

There are approximately 2,400 children and adolescents below 20 years of age who are diagnosed with ALL each year in the United States.

A gradual increase in the incidence of ALL has been observed in the last 25 years.

ALL is the most common cancer among children with a peak incidence of 4-5 years of age. It accounts for 23% of childhood cancers (children younger than 15 years).

The incidence of ALL appears to be highest in Hispanic children; it is 3- fold higher for white children,aged 2-3 years, compared to black children of the same age

In adults, it is less common than Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML). In the United States, approximately 1000 new ALL cases occur in adults each year.

Only 20-40% of adults with ALL are cured with current treatment regimens

The highest incidence of ALL occurs in Italy, the United States, Switzerland, and Costa Rica

The annual rate of ALL occurrence is approximately 30 to 40 per million. Causes Incidence Exposure to high doses of radiation therapy used to treat other types of cancer is one known risk factor. Other possible risk factors are continually under study. ALL is not contagious (catching). Risks Dr. Ronald Barr from McMaster University is currently conducting researching regarding ALL treatment and its affect on children. Dr. Barr decided to research the affects of treatment of ALL on children, and why the survival rate was so low. He studied the age a child is treated at and which treatment they are given. The data was collected from a cilincal trial that examined the quality of life of patients undergoing different types of treatment, and would be used to help aid Dr. Barr with this experiment. When completed, he hopes that it will help doctors determine what treatments will be most suited for a patient with ALL while taking their age fully into account. Research is still being conducted. characterized by excess lymphoblasts The cancer speed up the production of white blood cells by producing immature white blood cells continuously in the bone marrow. ALL causes damage and death by crowding out normal RBCs and platelets in the blood, and the infected cells can enter the capillaries and spread to other organs. From the Symptoms, We deducted that the patient probably have... I"M DONE!!!!
O D O http://video.about.com/pediatrics/Acute-Lymphocytic-Leukemia.htm I'll watch it :D
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