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Transcript of TCP/IP
ipconfig / ifconfig
TCP/IP is a four-layer conceptual model
The Transport layer (also known as the Host-to-Host Transport layer) is responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services. The core protocols of the Transport layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
TCP provides a one-to-one, connection-oriented, reliable communications service. TCP is responsible for the establishment of a TCP connection, the sequencing and acknowledgment of packets sent, and the recovery of packets lost during transmission.
UDP provides a one-to-one or one-to-many, connectionless, unreliable communications service. UDP is used when the amount of data to be transferred is small (such as the data that would fit into a single packet), when the overhead of establishing a TCP connection is not desired or when the applications or upper layer protocols provide reliable delivery.
The Internet layer is responsible for addressing, packaging, and routing functions. The core protocols of the Internet layer are IP, ARP, ICMP, and IGMP.
The Internet Protocol (IP) is a routable protocol responsible for IP addressing, routing, and the fragmentation and reassembly of packets.
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is responsible for the resolution of the Internet layer address to the Network Interface layer address such as a hardware address.
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is responsible for providing diagnostic functions and reporting errors due to the unsuccessful delivery of IP packets.
The Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) is responsible for the management of IP multicast groups.
The TCP/IP Model
Transmission Control Protocol
) is the basic communication language or protocol of the Internet. It can also be used as a communications protocol in a private network (either an
). When you are set up with direct access to the Internet, your computer is provided with a copy of the TCP/IP program just as every other computer that you may send messages to or get information from also has a copy of TCP/IP.
The Application layer provides applications the ability to access the services of the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. There are many Application layer protocols and new protocols are always being developed.
The most widely-known Application layer protocols are those used for the exchange of user information:
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is used to transfer files that make up the Web pages of the World Wide Web.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for interactive file transfer.
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is used for the transfer of mail messages and attachments.
Telnet, a terminal emulation protocol, is used for logging on remotely to network hosts.
The Network Interface layer (also called the Network Access layer) handles placing TCP/IP packets on the network medium and receiving TCP/IP packets off the network medium. TCP/IP was designed to be independent of the network access method, frame format, and medium. In this way, TCP/IP can be used to connect differing network types. These include local area network (LAN) media such as Ethernet and Token Ring and WAN technologies such as X.25 and Frame Relay. Independence from any specific network media allows TCP/IP to be adapted to new media such as asynchronous transfer mode (ATM).
The Internet layer handles addressing, packaging, and routing functions. The core protocols of the Internet layer are IP, ARP, ICMP, and IGMP
The Transport layer (also known as the Host-to-Host Transport layer) handles providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services. The core protocols of the Transport layer are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
The Application layer lets applications access the services of the other layers and defines the protocols that applications use to exchange data. There are many Application layer protocols and new protocols are always being developed
Network Interface Layer
Commands that use the Transport Layer:
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