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Acute Renal Failure
Transcript of Acute Renal Failure
Acute Renal Failure
Location and Size:
Acute Renal Failure
Another primary supportive treatment of ARF is dialysis
-located in the back
-about the size of a fist
-water level balance
-blood pressure, RBC, & Acid regulation
What is a kidney
- part of the urinary system
-filters blood & produce urine
-It is estimated that there are between 11 to 30 million people with chronic kidney disease of any evidence of kidney disease in USA.
-It is estimated that currently there are over 1 million people worldwide who are alive on dialysis.
(ARF) is the sudden, abrupt cessation of renal function related to trauma, stress, drugs, or anything that decreases blood flow to the kidneys causing disruptions in fluid electrolyte, acid-base balances, retention of nitrogenous waste products, increased serum creatinine levels, and decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
Causes of Acute Renal Failure
Acute Renal Failure is devided into
Failure depends on which portion of kidneys is affected
-Nephrotoxic drugs or chemicals
(antibiotics, NSAIDs, Organic solvents, contrast dye, heavy metal
-Hemolytic transfusion reactions
-Urinary tract obstruction
-Debilitating or serious illness
-Decreased renal perfusion from Acute Myocardial Infarction,
heart failure, DIC, sepsis
Signs & Symptoms
-Sudden onset of oliguria progressing
-Restlessness, twitching, convulsions
-Headache, Nausea, Vomiting
-Lung crackles, rapid respirations
-Ammonia breath odor
Diagnostic & Laboratory Test
-History & Physical
-Urine Specific gravity
-BUN & Creatinine
-Renal untrasound, KUB, Xrays, CT,
aororenal angiography, cystoscopy,
retrograde pyelography, renal biopsy
-Intake & Output
-Fluid overload: Peripheral & periorbital edema, Lung crackels, Dyspnea,
Distented neck veins, Hypertention
-For signs of fluid volume deficit during diuretic phase
Therapeutic Interventions Cont.
-IV isotonic fluids & plasma expanders, hypovolemia
-Dopamine (in low doses to promote renal perfusion)
-Loop or osmotic diuretics to decrease fluid retention
-Kayexalate, to treat elevated K+, Insulin
-Calcium to prevent bone demineralization
-Antihypertensives if hypertension present (clonidine)
CCB in AFR caused from nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
Complications of Acute Renal Failure
Pre-Renal: Any condition that significantly reduces renal perfusion pressure and causes a decreased glomerular filtration rate and azotemia may cause prerenal kidney failure
Renal: Actual damage to the nephrons and renal parenchyma characterize intrarenal failure
Post-renal: caused by clinical conditions that cause obstruction to urine flow
-The goals for collaborative management are to identify people with increased risks of developing acute renal failure
-Provide early recognition and treatment, restore blood flow to kidneys, prevent complications such as permanent injury, (pulmonary edema, heart failure, anemia, encephalopathy) and prevent recurrence.
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Copstead, L. C., & Banasik, J. L. (2010). Pathophysiology (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
Mayo Clinic Staff. “Acute Kidney Failure." Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and
Research, 2008. Retrieved from Web. January 4, 2014.
McClellan, William. "National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse."
National Institutes of Health, 2012. Web. 24 November 2012.
Shroff, Dr. Sunil. "Donate Organs to Save Lives” Web. December 28, 2013. Retrieved from: