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Chapter 1 Media and Culture

COJO 1000 Introduction to Mass Media, University of Wyoming

Rebecca Roberts

on 28 January 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 1 Media and Culture

Chapter 1 Media and Culture
Mass Communication
Intersection of Media and Culture
The Evolution of Media
The Evolution of Culture
Kinds of Convergence - Henry Jenkins
Media Mix: Convergence
Cultural Values Shape Media; Media Shape Cultural Values
Communication transmitted to large segments of a population
The plural of medium, a medium is a means of transmission
Mass Media
Those means of transmission designed to reach a wide audience
The expressed and shared , values, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of a social group, organization or institution.
Marshall McLuhan
The medium is the message.
Each medium creates patterns of thought and behavior.
People and societies shaped by dominant media of their time.
Clifford Geertz
Culture is an historically transmitted pattern of meaning embodied in symbolic forms by which we communicate, perpetuate and develop attitudes and knowledge toward life.
Media Convergence -The process by which previously distinct technologies come together, sharing content, tasks and resources
1450s Gutenberg - movable type
printing press


Steam engine
1830s Morse - telegraph
1850s Photography
1880s Motion pictures, sound recording
1880s Wireless telegraphy - radio

1920s Television

1960s Computers, digital
1970s Internet
1990s Multimedia, World Wide Web
Mass Media

1600s Books

1700s Newspapers

1800s Magazines
1830s Advertising

1900s Movies
1900s Recorded music
1920s Radio broadcasting
1950s Television broadcasting
1980s Cable television

1990s World Wide Web
Blogs, e-mail, wikis, social media
What do media do for us?
Educate and inform
Serve as a public forum
Monitor government, business and other institutions
Cultural period - a time marked by a particular way of understanding the world through culture and technology
Middle Ages
5th -15th century
King and church - dictate truth
Modern Age
Early modern 15th - 18th century
Enlightenment, Renaissance Science and reason seek truth
Late modern mid 18th - mid 20th century
Industrial revolution - mass production,
technology, industry and consumerism
Postmodern Age
Mid 20th century
Questioning of reason and grand narrative
Reject ultimate truth - reality subjective - contingency, context, diversity
1. Economic convergence
- single company with interests across many kinds of media

2. Organic convergence
- media multitasking

3. Cultural convergence
- stories flow across media platforms,
participatory culture
- we add comments, share, remix, and otherwise respond

4. Global convergence
- diverse cultures influence each other through media, raises concern of
cultural imperialism
- imposing cultural values

5. Technological convergence
- merging of technologies
What are the effects of convergence?
2010 Kaiser Foundation - Americans 8-18 spend 7.5 hours with electronic devices each day, thanks to multitasking they pack an average of 11 hours of media content into that 7.5 hours.
We don't yet know how media convergence and immersion are shaping people, culture and our brains.
Activity Chapter 1
Nicholas Carr
Steven Johnson
1. Which argument do you find more compelling? Johnson's or Carr's? Explain why you agree or disagree.
2. What is your theory about how convergence is shaping individuals and culture?
Free speech illustrates evolving relationship between media and cultural values
Freedom of speech - a relatively new idea
Exceptions to free speech include obscenity and copyrighted materials
- message that attempts to persuade audience for ideological, political or social purposes
So who influences the media messages that shape culture?
- people who determine what stories we see
- people or organizations that influence current trends, style and popular culture
- tasks traditionally performed by individuals delegated to users, an unpaid crowd
Media Literacy
Media literacy - the ability to decode and process media messages
The National Association for Media Literacy Education's (NAMLE) five questions:
1. Who created this message?
2. What creative techniques are used to attract my attention?
3. How might different people understand this message differently?
4. What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in, or omitted, from this message?
5. Why is this message being sent?
Assignment due in Chapter 1 Drop-box on Wednesday 1/22 by midnight.
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