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Copy of Alkaline Flooding

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by

mohamed nour el din

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Alkaline Flooding

Supervised By;
Prof. Sayed El-Tayeb Alkaline Flooding OUTLINE Introduction Introduction History Alkaline chemicals are also called alkalis and dates back to the early 1917s.

The acting mechanisms were not clearly understood at that time but the hypothesis of wetability change combined with oil-water interfacial tension (IFT) lowering was emitted.

Alkaline flooding was started in 1925 in USA using Sodium Carbonate. Recovery Mechanism Increase oil recovery by improving:
Displacement efficiency
Sweep efficiency
Capillary number=







[alkali] Group Members 1. Ahmed Ali
2. Ahmed Borg
3. Ahmed Ibrahim
4. Ahmed Khaled
5. Ahmed Sobhi
6. Ahmed Waheed
7. Alaa Atif Epead
8. Hamed Ali
9. Mahmoud Nagati Outline Method Description
Acid number gives the amount of potassium hydroxide (in mg) required to neutralize one gram of oil.

In alkaline flooding acidity number should be more than 0.8mg KOH/gm crude oil. Emulsification
&
Entrainment Wettability Change from
oil wet to water wet Wettability Alteration Method Description Recovery Mechanism Alkaline reacts with organic acid to form soap.

Soap(surfactant) reduces the interfacial tension.

Capillary number increase and residual oil decreases. alaaa History Method Description Recovery Mechanisms Types of caustic used Screening criteria Researches Pilot Testing Case Study Conclusion Wettability from
water wet to oil wet In oil wet reservoir where oil is continuous phase

Rock wetability is reversed from oil wet to water wet

Relative permeability to water decreases In water wet reservoir where residual oil is discontinuous.
Non wetting oil changed to continuous wetting phase at certain conditions ( T, P, Salinity. Introduction Alkaline Flooding It is called (caustic flooding)
Inject fluids such (NaOH, Na2SiO4)
React with naturally occurring organic acids
Generating surfactant in situ. Emulsification & Entrainment Emulsification
&
Entrapment Wettability Alteration In oil wet reservoir where oil is continuous phase

Rock wetability is reversed from oil wet to water wet

Relative permeability to water decreases In water wet reservoir where residual oil is discontinuous

Non wetting oil changed to continuous wetting phase at certain conditions ( T, P, Salinity Types Of Caustic Screening Criteria Saves time so that we do not use the technique and test the effect
Saves money so that we do not use technique and fail. Screening Criteria Screening Criteria Researches Effect of Slug size of alkaline on oil recovery Effect of oil viscosity on recovery when using alkaline flooding Effect of temperature on alkaline flooding Effect of alkaline types on contact angle
Effect of alkaline type on oil recovery Effect of Slug Size Effect of Oil Viscosity Effect of Temperature Pilot testing is carried before applying any enhanced oil recovery

Limitations of using pilot test

Information that pilot flooding can yield. Pilot Testing Pilot Testing Rules that need to be followed by pilot test

The caustic flooding pilot test includes injection of four slugs :
Pre-flush slug
Alkaline slug with a tracer
Post treatment mobility control slug
Drive water Case Study Wilmington field in California
Comparative laboratory studies carried out Case Study Consumption of the alkaline material Case Study Caustic Flood Optimization Case Study Caustic Flood Optimization Alkaline flooding has the following features:

It is the cheapest enhanced oil recovery process,
It is relatively simple.
It has shown success in some field attempts and has a potential for giving greater incremental oil recovery in the future. Conclusion Conclusion The primary problem in caustic flooding is caustic consumption. It is difficult to predict and model, and is the most crucial design parameter.

The mechanisms are fairly well understood only in a qualitative sense.

Application is restricted to certain reservoirs and crude oils and project implementation requires careful studies. Acidity Number Method Description It starts with pre-flush water injection
Then followed by injection of an alkaline solution of about 10-30 % PV
Finally continuous injection of drive water References ERLEC DONALDSON, GORGE V.CHILNGARIAN and TEH FU YEN, from enhanced oil recovery II processes and operations

http://digital.library.ksu.edu.sa/V2M32R976.pdf

 Enhanced oil Recovery (SPE Handbook) THANK YOU Emulsification &
Entrapment Entrapment of emulsion droplets by small pores

Improve volumetric sweep efficiency
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