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Security and Nation-state
Transcript of Security and Nation-state
3) International migrants have often become a political force in the country in which they reside. Neoclassical Liberals:
-Advocate free trade and free flow of capital
-Do not believe that there should be free movement of people Sovereignty:
-States claim the exclusive authority to decide who shall enter and who shall be permitted to become citizens. Consequences of free movement:
-No national identity
-Loss of political control 1)Unrestricted entry rules 2) Promotional Entry Rules 3) Selective Entry Rules 4) Unwanted Entry Rules 5) Prohibition Entry Rules 1) Prohibition Exit Rules 2) Selective Exit Rules 3) Permissive Exit Rules 4) Promotional Exit Rules 5) Expulsion Exit Rules -Differential Variables -Spatial Variables -Affinity Variables -Access Variables -One state promotes entry and another promotes exit. -One state permits, promotes, or compels emigration to a state that prohibits . -Where one country prohibits emigration that another country seeks to promote. -Countries with strained relations may effectively seal their borders to population movements in order to avoid future conflict. -Expulsions need not be a source of international conflict in another state in concerned with the promotion of immigration. International Relations and the Rules of Access -Shaped by the relations between states -Conditional on other states' policies -Impacted by the economic forces International Migrants as Links -Migrants are becoming important political actors in receiving state. -Promote foreign policy that benefits their country of origin. International Migration and Security Why would states perceive migrants as a security threat? -September 11, 2001 Migrant Insecurity What types of insecurities do International Migrants often encounter? -Smuggling, Trafficking, Bonded Labour and Lack of Human and Worker Rights. Migrant Insecurity is also concerned with perceived threats. -Cultural-Challenging the host state's "status-quo"
-Socioeconomic-social impact of economic change
-Political -Migrants who may become politically disloyal Migrants can also stimulate violent conflict in 3 ways -Providing resources that fuel internal conflicts
-Facilitating networks of organized crime
-Serving as conduits for international terrorism -The 1980s triggered securitization of migrations issues -Between 1945 and 1980, States didn't show signs of xenophobia. Migrant Benefits -While International migration affects the autonomy of the recipient state, alternatively migrants can increase the host states power and stimulate economic growth.
Transatlantic Security -Before 2001, considerable grants given to Muslim Immigrants and their offspring; Muslims living in America are generally more educated and prosperous as compared to the Muslims in Europe.
-France used a process of incorporation, which increased the use of French in the household and decreased mother tongue.
-“…Successful incorporation of migrant and migrant-background populations in western countries looms as a geostrategic imperative in the War of Terrorism” (Castles p.217)
Case Study: Mexico -115,000 people displaced in Mexico from drug violence, while another 115,000 have fled into the U.S.
-Most of the bloodshed has been caused by the drug cartel known as “Zetas” They are the most powerful cartel in all of Mexico. Case Study: Mexico How to deal with Mexico’s drug conundrum?
-Tax and regulate
-Finish the Fence
-Influxes of migrants often replace a declining, aging population which in turn can bring economic and state security
-States immigration policy can attribute to its “soft power”