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Science Fair Project

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Marissa Wright

on 25 January 2013

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Transcript of Science Fair Project

Tap Water vs. Spring Water Marissa Wright 6th Grade Jennifer Stambaugh I chose this topic because I often wondered why we spend money purchasing bottled water when we have tap water already running through our faucets. I'm curious about the differences if any, and if one offers better health benefits than the other. Hypothesis If I can manipulate/and or observe both of the samples of water then I can see each of their contents. My guess is that the spring bottled water will be more pure than the tap water. According to the Annual report of Violations of The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act 2004, there was significant violations of drinking water in Tennessee.
I feel the purpose of this experiment is knowledge.
Knowing if there is a difference in tap and bottled
spring water will help me make an informed decision concerning what I can use each of them for (bathing, drinking, etc...). Will my health be affected if I drink one or the other? Having knowledge about this will allow me to share information with those around me and inform my community. My second purpose is to justify money spent on bottled spring water.
Source 1- Azoulay, A., Garzon, P. and Eisenberg, M.J. (2001), Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Waters and Bottled Waters. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16: 168-175. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2001.04189.x

I learned that drinking water contains calcium, magnesium and sodium. I also learned that by drinking 1-2 liters of tap water a day you can get a percentage of these minerals daily. Background Research
Source 2- Annual Report of The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act 2004 by Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Supply July 2005

I never knew that so many bacteria could potentially exist in our drinking water like Giardia lamblia, Legionella and viruses. I understand now why there are so many steps to keeping our water safe such as filtration and disinfection.
Source 3- Symons M. James, Plain Talk About drinking Water. Denver: American Water Works Association, 2001. print. p. 166-167, 221 4th edition

I found out that the water that runs through our faucets is actually manufactured. Water is not just pumped out of the ground and given to us to drink. There is a process that has to take place. There is a place located in Russia where the shore is so polluted from dumping you could get a good dose of radiation.
Source 4- Millichap, J. Gordon,M.D., Is Our water Safe To Drink? A Guide To Drinking Water Hazards And Heath Risks. Chicago : PNB Publishers, 1995. print. p.151, 170

I did not know that there were so many different brands of bottled water. The International Bottled Water Association reported over 600. I was also surprised to learn that even bottled water could not be totally trusted as safe. It can potentially grow bacteria if shelved for awhile in a warm place. Background Research Background Research Source 6- Lalumandier, James A., and Leona W. Ayers. "Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled water vs tap water." Archives of family medicine 9.3 (2000): 246-250.

Fluoride is more in tap water than bottled water. When we filter our tap water, we unknowingly filter out the fluoride, which is good for tooth decay.
The design was set up to experiment with taste, observation, measurement to evaluate evaporation rates. The main objective is to discover if there is any differences in the two samples of water. Spring water 15ml
Tap water 15ml
2 glasses
10 plastics cups
Ruler
Magnifying glass 1. I had 2 glasses and labeled one spring water, the other tap water. I then poured 15ml of each water sample into it's designated glass.
2. Observation was done to see if there was any visible differences in the samples. Notes were taken.
3. For 10 days measurements were taken at the same time each day. The temperature was also recorded.
4. A blind taste test was set up and performed with myself and members of my family. The sample cups were labeled 1and 2. The participants were asked to record a description of the taste of each sample. The results were graphed.
5. A final observation was made at the end of the 10 day experiment and recorded. Source 5- Doria, F. Miguel. Bottled water versus tap water: Understanding consumer's preferences. Journal of Water and Health. IWA Publishing, 2006

Bottled water seems to be pretty popular in other places not just the U.S.. So much was spent on just advertising, forty-three million in 1990. Now with all the different brands even more money is spent. Tap Water Spring Water Data Analysis Data Analysis Background Research Background Research Background Research Experimental Design Materials Procedure Purpose Results Observation- Both of the water samples (spring and tap) were clear. There were no particles seen, no obvious differences until the end of the experiment. The spring water sample had lots of residue left behind after evaporation. The tap water had a lot less.
Measurement- Both water samples evaporated at the same rate. For the 10 days they measured the same height each time.
Blind taste test- All members of my family including myself favored the spring water better than the tap water. Conclusions The major results were that there was an obvious difference in taste. I was also surprised to see all the residue in the spring water glass.
I feel like the knowledge I acquired will help me make more informed decisions about my drinking water.
The only background research that I was able to see that related to my experiment is that bottled water is not as clean as we may think.
I could possibly improve on this experiment if I had the equipment to actually separate each of the waters contents.
Maybe over a longer period of time a study could be done to see the health effects of tap versus spring water in two subjects. Bibliography
Source 1- Azoulay, A., Garzon, P. and Eisenberg, M.J. (2001), Comparison of the Mineral Content of Tap Waters and Bottled Waters. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16: 168-175. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2001.04189.x

Source 2- Annual Report of The Federal Safe Drinking Water Act 2004 by Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation Division of Water Supply July 2005

Source 3- Doria, F. Miguel. Journal of Water and Health, 2006, IWA Publishing

Source 4- Lalumandier, James A., and Leona W. Ayers. "Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled water vs tap water." Archives of family medicine 9.3 (2000): 246-250.
Source5- Millichap, J. Gordon,M.D., Is Our water Safe To Drink? A Guide To Drinking Water Hazards And Heath Risks. Chicago : PNB Publishers, 1995. print. p.151, 170

Source 6- Symons M. James, Plain Talk About drinking Water. Denver: American Water Works Association, 2001. print. p. 166-167, 221 4th edition
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