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Television | History

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Margaret Tan

on 27 June 2016

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Transcript of Television | History


By Norman, Margaret, Liven, Mercedes and Caius
Television has been a large part of the Australian way of life since its introduction in 1956. Television has changed dramatically throughout the decades since television was introduced to Australia. Changes in entertainment styles, influence from other nations, the introduction of new genres, popularity of shows, advertising and quality of television has made a huge impact on everyday life and the progression of television from the 1960's to the modern 2000's.
Shows with the highest ratings in Australia
From 2000 - 2009, the TV programs with the highest ratings were:
1. 2005 Australian Open Men's Singles Final (4.04 million)
2. 2003 Rugby World Cup Final (4.01 million)
3. 2009 MasterChef Grand Final (3.74 million)
4. 2006 Commonwealth Games Opening Ceremony (3.56 million)
5. 2005 AFL Grand Final (3.39 million)


Reality Television
During the 2000s, reality TV became very popular. Shows like Survivor and American Idol proved to be global successes, and reality TV reached it's highest point of popularity. Before that in the late 1990s, reality television took a brief decline in popularity. Several television shows have been adapted in different countries, such as The X Factor, The Amazing Race, Next Top Model, and MasterChef.
Television Actors
Various sitcom casts ('How I Met Your Mother', 'The Office', 'Malcolm in the Middle', 'Two and a Half Men')
Cast of 'Friends' (the show ended in 2004)
Sarah Michelle Gellar (from 'Buffy the Vampire Slayer')
Hugh Laurie (from 'House')
Kiefer Sutherland (from '24')
Bryan Cranston (from 'Malcolm in the Middle' and 'Breaking Bad')
Simon Cowell (from 'American Idol')
Various Disney actors
Influences to Australian Television shows
Popular TV shows
Popular Genres
The 1980’s saw a huge change in Australian TV including genres becoming more popular such as children shows and a new national broadcasting channel being introduced
Australian programs reached a peak in the 1980’s and its television also went global, with many local shows finding overseas audiences and vice versa
This was due partly to the introduction of color TV in the mid 1970's
Large companies paid big money to advertise their products on televisions around the world.
However, it has also had a lot of negative influence on the world. Body image and self esteem suffered due to advertising campaigns of beauty products, which depicted "flawless" women who were supposedly what all women should aspire to look like.
Infomercials were also very popular due to how easy it was to purchase useful products over the phone.
Progression of television
LCD and Plasma TVs were introduced, and slowly became the standard television in the late 2000s
16:9 ratio TVs took over from 4:3 TVs
CRT televisions (the original type of TV) became fast outdated
Analogue television had been planned to be phased out to make way for digital television, a higher quality and more up-to-date form of television transmission
In 2010, Australia began to make the switch to digital television
By the 10th December 2013, Australia had fully phased out analogue television. There were many new channels added to digital TV, such as ABC3, GO!, Gem, 7mate, Eleven, and TVS.
Television in Australia was first introduced on the 16th of September 1956, when the first ever live television broadcast from Sydney, called ‘This is Television’, was launched all around Australia. It included dancing, live music, comedy and news. Since then advances in technology, American and British communications and Australian culture would largely influence Australian television in the 1960s and created a pathway for further advances throughout the decades.
American and British Influence
Australia has been largely influenced by America and Britain and largely influenced the programs on Australian television in the 60s.

American Programs were mainly sitcom such as:
Lost in space
I love Lucy
Beverly hillbillies
Green Acres
Gilligan's island

British Programs were more diverse in the genres such as:
Doctor who
Monty Python
Frost report
Australian Television
There were many popular genres in Australian television during the 1960’s. Entertainment inn Television was mainly family based at this time, producing and showing many shows in the genre of
Live music
children’s television shows.

Australia began produce many programs and shows that were broadcast on television such as:
The Mavis Bramston Show
In Melbourne tonight
Four Corners
Skippy the kangaroo
play school

Many Australian made quiz shows such as BP Pick a box, Coles 3000 pound question and the great temptation were already recorded and used on radio however were soon televised in the 1960s. These were all filmed in front of live studio audiences.

Influence of television from other countries
Due to the dominance of foreign programs, mostly American, on Australian television had met with public opposition so the Australian TV stations began to give local shows a greater platform.
Australian programs shown on TV increased in the 1980’s.
Soap opera
Extremely popular in Australia during the 1980’s.
New shows introduced on television such as Neighbours and Home and Away
Many shows including The Sullivans, Young Doctors and Sons and Daughters have been broadcasted overseas such as the UK and have found significant international success.
Neighbours originally aired on Channel 7 but due to low views ,cancelled, but immediately picked up by Ten and turned it into a major success.
National public television network in Australia
14 October 1983, the network expanded into Canberra and Goulbourn and at the same time changed its name to 0/28.
New slogan: “Bringing the World Back Home”.
1885, changed name to SBS + began daytime transmissions.
Same year, expanded into Brisbane, Adelaide, Newcastle and the Gold Coast
1986 commenced transmission in Perth and Hobart, Darwin = last capital city to receive channel.
Children TV shows
Many children TV shows were introduced in Australia from other countries such as America and Britain while we still did make our own shows (10 years later)
Postman Pat: A postman's adventures in his village of Greendale
Pingu: Pengiun that goes on adventures with his sister Pinga and often gets into mischief
Thomas and Friends: Tells about the adventures of a group of locomotives and road vehicles in the fictional place called the 'Island of Sodor'
Cultural Influences
The Charlie Brown and Snoopy Show: Animated television series based on the comic strip "Peanuts"
There were a limited amount of channels on Australia television as well as limited programs however it would eventually develop.
Fireman Sam: A fireman, his other firefighters and the townspeople in a fictional place called Pontypandy
Many different cultures and countries influenced and were influenced by Australian television
America had a very prominent influence, with many shows played in Australia originated and were adapted from there
Anime, which originated from Japan, became largely popular during the 2000s
English television was as popular as it was in previous decades
Australia also influenced English television, with our soap operas Neighbours and Home and Away gaining a large British fanbase
With the increasing popularity of television, box office sales were declining. The 70's was a radical period and this had been reflected during the nation's screens, as it was pushed to what was considered as new acceptable limits. In some ways, the decade was a continuation of the 1960s. The 70's had felt like a "proving ground" of sorts where cultures were being redefined. The 60's had paved the way already for American and Britain to breach out, stretch and push the creative notions to a near limitless boundary. Some tests had yielded dynamic results, and in the end some of the finest television shows of all time were born.
Popular TV shows
Since the birth of television, every decade has brought forth a few masterpieces that had defined the era and the 70's had more than their fair share.
A major figure during this time (Bert Newton)
Veteran entertainer known for shows such as: 20-1, Good Morning Australia and In Melbourne Tonight
The Bert Newton Show, Ford Superquiz, The Don Lane Show, New Faces
Unsuccessful, aired short time
Became a popular person... later on
Awards and honours: Victorian of the Year (1, 2008), Centenary Medal (2001)
Documentary in 2002 about career in eary days
Television and the internet
The internet also played a part in the overall success of television in the 2000s. Video streaming websites such as Youtube and Vimeo had episodes of several TV shows uploaded to watch from laptops and phones. Websites such as Netflix that could play movies and TV shows were also popular as they were convenient and did not require any purchasing or leaving the house.
Children's Television
The Color Television
By 1978, it was estimated that around 7 in 10 Sydney households had owned a colour television set. Colour television gave television programmes a new appeal, injecting them with vibrancy and depth. Sporting programmes, for example, became much more dynamic and music programmes were brighter and more exciting to watch.
Reality TV
Governmental controls
Advertising for a range of products was becoming increasingly common in television. Brand owners would often play television stations to advertise their products. These ads often included songs and jingles.

They advertised any everyday products including:
Coca Cola

In the early 1970s, the government introduced tax breaks and funding assistance to the local film industry to help protect it from foreign imports.

In 1976, the government had imposed a 50 percent quota on Australian television
between 4pm and 1pm, which also helped spur the local programmes.
Soap Operas
TV awards in the 1970s
Adult and Family Shows
The 12th TV week Logie awards had been aired for the first time on television and was presented by Bert Newton. In 1969 called the Best New Talent (now Most Popular New Talent), was created to encourage new performers on television. The first Best new talent winner was actor Gerard Kennedy, who late went on to win two Gold Logies for his work on Division 4.
News Events
Advertisements in the 1980's
By the mid-1980s, advertising agencies started to make 15-second commercials, hoping to maximize the ad’s effectiveness and profits.
Doing these 15-second ads allowed advertisers to run a larger amount of ads on TV, increasing frequency and profits, while decreasing cost.
The 90s were revolutionary to the television industry. Technology, demographic and entertainment itself changed and evolved to what we remember as our childhoods, our history and our influences. The 90s was a defining moment of the entertainment industry, changing television and the way we entertain. From video games to music videos to cartoons, 90s changed many things about entertainment as we know it.
Influential People in 60s Television

During the 1960s there were an increase of celebrity actors and TV names in Australia. Most were game show hosts and news presenters.

Bob Dyer
Graham Kennedy
Bobby Limb
Leonard Teale

Progression and Innovation

Progressions of television mainly began during the 1960s when satellite television was introduced. This allowed not only news and sports to be broadcast nationally but internationally.

Australian news was on every channel that was pre recorded and aired hours after it was recorded. Many news programs on differing channels, all spread awareness about the events happening in the country.

The first international broadcast australian took part in was in 1967 called 'our world' that also included 14 other countries.

The first television sports game was televised in 1967 all around Australia on what is now called the Nine Network. It televised the NSWRFL grand final . Satellite and technology advances during the 1960s also allowed the 1964 Olympic games in Tokyo and 1968 Mexico to be televised in Australia .

These satellites allowed for the whole of Australia to witness the 1969 Apollo Moon Landing.

During 1969 Australia saw its first introduction of colour television however it did not make its full introduction until the 70s.....

Popular genres in the 90s were similar to past trends, though these shows and the genres themselves have evolved to appeal to the demographic of the decade.
Popular genres were :
reality television
childrens TV
Video Game Consoles
Video game consoles help the television industry in sales during the time. Though the video game home console had been around since the 70s, the market for video games exploded during the 90s. the advancement of technology from 2D to 3D graphics and the change from cartridges to CDs as well as optical disk storage, help the videogame industry propell itself away from the crashes of the video game industry in 1977 and 1983.
Playstation 102 million units shipped
Sega Saturn:
9.5 million units shipped
32.92 units shipped
Live coverage of the first man on the moon
9/11 News Coverage
When the World Trade Center in New York City was hit by two commercial airline planes that has been hijacked by terrorists, the world went into shock. News programs all around the world documented every detail of the disaster for days. In the US, the television coverage was the longest running uninterrupted news event in US history, lasting for 90 continuous hours.
Television had been put to its ultimate test as the US and UK had prepared to broadcast the coverage of the Apollo 11 mission. The UK had all the three television channels, BBC2 and ITV providing 27 hours of extensive coverage from the 16th-24th of July 19. The US had many television channels that had broadcasted the coverage extensively as well such as NASA TV and the CBS channel. In addition to the launch NASA had used Australia as a place to support their Apollo program. There had been antenna dishes installed in the Honeysuckle Creek as it had been the real star of the Apollo missions. Most notably, it supplied voice telemetry contact with the lunar and command modules but most importantly it also provided the first televised pictures of the Apollo 11 moonwalk.
The 2000s were a very influential decade in regards to communication and technology. Devices such as mobile phones, laptops and tablets became extremely common. With the introduction of social media, the internet gained a larger audience. Television in the 2000s was as popular as ever.
Changes in the industry
Television very much reflects the audience of the generation. The 90s is when the television and entertainment industry moved away from the family oriented shows from the 60s, 70s and 80s. Formerly 'family' genres of telvision shows like sitcoms and cartoons become more and more adult oriented to keep adults and teenagers audience.
Sitcoms like 'Seinfeld', 'Fresh Prince of Bel-air' and 'Friends', which were more adult oriented were introduced to the new demographic. These shows were risky for their time but their effect on the industry can still be seen today, with shows like 'Big Bang Theory', 'Scrubs', 'Two and a Half Men' and countless others which have exploded in popularity.
The change to a more adult oriented sitcom kept the now adult audience which grew up with family oriented sitcoms such as 'I dream of Jeannie' and 'The Brady Bunch' watching television.
The change of demographic hit the cartoon genre hard. With more a more mature audience, cartoons became unappealing. Cartoons were mostly directed towards a child demographic before, so when the adult and teenage demographic increased, they had to change the cartoons to be more mature but still appeal to younger audiences. Cartoons like 'the Simpsons' became popular for its use of mature humor but with cartoon appeal to children.
'The Simpsons' was a leader in the use of mature in humor but many other cartoons used mature humor as well as classical cartoon wackiness to entertain all audiences. Cartoons like 'Animaniacs' (1993) and 'Pinky and the Brain'(1995) used combined wackiness and sophisticated adult humor to entertain all people in the demographic.
Furthermore, cartoons that are specifically made for the adult demographic like 'South Park' (1997) were made which are definitely not suited for kids
Influences to Australia's television come in many forms. Popular genres of television in Britain and America like reality television and children's television shows, influenced Australian shows.
Television advertising was slightly becoming
more sophisticated by the early 1970s. The typical seventies commercial would still feature actors representing just plain folk using a product or an expert-looking person praising the products virtue, or some gimmicky hook to get to you to, hopefully, to remember the product. During the seventies commercial breaks during primetime were rarely longer than one minute so there was a great deal and less clutter to break through advertisers on TV. Beauty products, gasoline, automobiles, chemical companies, soap, food, cleaning products, toys, Coke, Pepsi and Mcdonalds dominated the primetime and daytime commercial landscape during this period.
neighbours theme song

In conclusion, television has progressed very far from the 1960s. From analogue television with limited stations, to a wide number of channels and high definition resolution televisions. Television is only going to progress further in the future.
Companies advertising their product, whatever it may be faced a lot of problems during the 90s. Factors that challenged advertising were:
Spending cuts
However advertisements still thrived and became memorable in the minds of many. Many ads still used comedy and catchy tunes but now through another medium called the internet. However, television commercials were still popular; advertisements like Mr Bucket
New Demographic
The Internet
Reality Television
Influences from the British and American entertainment market and the explosive success of reality television during the 90s, Australia eventually made reality TV shows of their own; the first being Sylvania Waters (1992). This series followed a 'normal' Aussie family living in sunny Sylvania waters. Sylvania Waters only ran for about 4 months from March to June of 1992.
Later in the decade, there was another reality television show by the name of 'House from Hell!' (1998). The show was similar to Big Brother. 6 strangers forced into one space to live for 3 months...Magical...
Children television shows
So classy...
American Television heavily influenced the children's television market. Shows like 'Sesame Street' and 'Barney & Friends'(1992) influenced the Australian television shows 'Bananas in Pyjamas' which is amazingly memorable in to this very day. It was similar to 'Barney & Friends' and 'Teletubbies'(1997), as there was songs and a moral lesson in the end.
The experimentation of television shows and innovation of the television enertainment experience evolved throughout the history of television. One clear example is the Australian television show 'Let the Blood Run Free'

The show was a soap opera spoof based in a hospital. the plot was loose but most importantly, the direction of the plot was based on audience voting. this was a brave step to the modern day entertainment experience where audiences can now interact with the content of the show. Shows like 'the Project' (2009) integrate audience opinion such as polls and Twitter replies
Influential Television personalities
Rove McManus
Rove McManus' show, 'Rove', premiered on the TEN channel in 1999 and was a success. Mcmanus brought his personality to live television. 'Rove' had wacky segments, celebrities and comedy combined with news and political satire. His show gave way for other shows like 'The Project' which also combines comedy and news (as well as out-of-context video clips). 'Rove' had ran for 10 years, ending in 2009 as McManus continued his career in America although his legacy in Australia lives on with Rove Productions.
Ray Martin is a phenomenal television journalist, hosting 'A Current Affair' and 'Midday with Ray Martin'. He has won 5 Golden Logies for Most Popular Personality on Television for his work in the 90s, four in a row. He has also hosted '60 Minutes' and has done multiple special interviews on channel Nine and channel Ten. He is still celebrated today as one of the best journalist in television history.
Australian Television Channels
here were a limited amount of channels on Australian television during the 1960s however there was a large increase during this time due to the growing popularity of televisions.

Victoria’s GLV-10
Bendigo’s BCV-8
Newcastle’s NBN-3

By 1964 The australian government was aiming to connect the smaller channels and establish larger channels that would be available to most of Australia. By the mid `60's larger town were receiving their second and third television channels.

National Television network (NTN)
Australian Television network (ATN)
Australian Broadcasting cooperation (ABC)

In 1964 channel 10 was established in Sydney and soon spread to other cities. However there being many different stations around Australia they all broadcast the same popular programs throughout the 1960’s.
Lisa McCune was a popular actress during the 90s, she was won four consecutive Golden Logies for her role in 'Blue Heelers', a police drama. She was one of the most popular actresses of the 90s as shown by her four consecutive Logies.
Her career continued in theater and television in multiple cameos and as a main character in 'Sea Patrol'.
Lisa McCune
Full transcript