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Copy of L3 Psychology - Personality

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Nathan Thomas

on 14 October 2012

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Transcript of Copy of L3 Psychology - Personality

Personality Recap Theories Personality Effects on
Performance Personality Types Key Terms List all the personality characteristics you can think of Psychological core = the part of you that
contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and interests.

Typical Responses = the usual way that
you respond to situations.

Role-related behaviour = behaviour determined by
the circumstances you find yourself in.

Trait - a relatively stable and enduring characteristic that is part of your personality Marten's Schematic View Trait Theory Situational-centred views Social learning theory Interactional view Psychological Core Typical responses Role-related behaviour "The real you" Contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and interests - Constant and stable The way you respond to the world around you "good indicator of your psychological core" Constant Internal Determined by the
circumstances you are in Your personality changes as your perception of your environment changes Example In the same day you might be captaining your college sports team where you show a lot of leadership behaviours, then working as an employee at your part-time job where you will follow a lot of instructions External Dynamic 1990 Example You may get angry and shout after being intentionally fouled in football because you feel deliberate fouls are un-sporting behaviour, but you may be quiet and shy when you meet people for the first time. Stable - neurotic dimension Introversion - extroversion
dimension Neurotic Stable Extroversion Introversion (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Trait theorist suggest that individuals have certain characteristic that will partly determine how they behave For the videos of the 2 athletes, write down 5 personality characteristics you would say they have. Don't actively seek excitement Like calm environments Like tasks that require concentration Dislike the unexpected Personality Characteristics? Sports? Get bored quickly Poor at tasks that require
alot on concentration Constantly seek change and excitement Less responsive to pain More successful in sporting situations as they cope
better with competitive and distracting situations Personality Characteristics? Sports? Easy-going Even tempered Restless, excitable Tendency to become anxious Highly aroused Trait Theory and Sport Trait views are too simplistic Personality alone cannot predict
success in sport It can, however, be used to help understand why individuals choose certain sports Remember... Although personality traits can be used with physiological and
situational factors to try and predict who will do well in sport.... There is no such thing as the right personality for
all sports that will guarantee success Behaviour is dependant on situation or environment In sport... ... Remember Argues that this is far more important than traits Freddie Flintoff... Playing for England Sport Relief Appearance Interview with Jonathan Ross Soccer AM - Ashes Celebrations Individuals may be introverted - displaying characteristics such as tolerance and shyness...

but may participate in a sport that requires them to be more extroverted, displaying characteristics like aggression and dominance A situation can influence a person's behaviour, but it cannot predict sporting behaviour.

To do this you also need to consider their personality traits as well. What environments may an
athlete find themself in?

What situations may an athlete find themself in? Motivational response Retention Motor reproduction Attention What is it? “People learn through observing others’ behaviour, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviours.”
Bandura (1977)

Social learning suggests:
Rather than being born with characteristics, we learn them from other people, especially significant others that include family, peers, teachers, heroes... How does it happen? Modelling In Sport...

When sports performers invent new ways....we copy! Individuals are likely to model themselves on people they can relate to Same sport

Gender Observe behaviour Attempt to copy behaviour Reinforcement As behaviour is reinforced, or rewarded in some way, it is likely that behaviour is repeated. Bandura identified four main stages of observational learning that demonstrates how modelling influences personality and behaviour Athlete must have a certain level of respect and admiration for the model they are observing

The amount of respect will depend on their status - If the model is successful, attractive and powerful they will hold the athletes attention To be effective, the athlete must be able to retain the observed skill or behaviour in their memory and recall it when needed The athlete must be able to physically perform the task.

Time is required to practice the skill in order to earn how it is performed and perfect it Unless the athlete is motivated, they will not go through the first 3 stages of modelling.

Motivation is dependant on:
the amount of reinforcement, such as, praise, feedback, pride or achievement.
Percieved status of the model
Importance of the task Personality To attempt to predict behaviour in a sporting situaton, you need to consider how the situation and personality traits link together ...interational approach to personality and sport behaviour widely accepted by sports psychologists... Personality
traits Situation The theory suggests that when situational factors are particularly strong, for example during a penalty shoot-up at the world cup, they are more likely to predict behaviour than personality traits The athlete who tends to be quiet and shy in everyday situations is likely to run towards an ecstatic crowd screaming if he scores the winning penalty Type A Lack patience Strong urge for competition High desire to achieve goals Rush to complete activities Happily multi-task under time constraints Lack tolerance towards others Experience high levels of anxiety Some sports psychologists believe personality traits can be group under two headings: Type A and Type B Type B More tolerent towards others More relaxed and reflective than Type A Experience lower levels of anxiety Display higher levels of imaginiation and creativity Discuss: Which personality type is likely to continue participating, and be successful in sport? Remember... Introverts - Individual sports (Long distance running, swimming)

Extroverts - Team, action orientated sports (Football, Rugby)

Extroverts are drawn to these types of sports because they have high levels of excitiement and stimulation. These have an ever-changing unexpected environment that keep them interested in the activity. Personality dimensons and Sports Performance There is no direct link between personality type and successful sporting performance. However, personality can suggest why an athlete is drawn to certain sports.

..But there is little evidence to say that your personlity type will make you a better athlete As we already know... Type A versus Type B In sport, Type A personalities are more likely than Type B personalities to continue participating in sport when the situation becomes unfavourable or when they are not motivated to take part. WHY??? Athlete versus non-athletes &
individual versus team sports There is no universal athletic personality to predict successful performance... What evidence is there? Athletes who take part in team sports are more extroverted than non-athletes Athletes who take part in individual sports tend to be more introverted than non-athletes What does this mean? In order to study the difference between athletes and non-athletes you need to consider the sport the athlete plays before reaching meaningful conclusions What differences might you find in these categories? Athlete Non-athlete Individual Sports Team Sports Elite versus non-elite athletes Do you think there is a difference in
between elite and non-elite athletes? personality In a recent study with a small number of athletes psychologists thought that successful athletes display lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and anger, but high levels of vigour.

However, this was deemed inconclusive... Personality accounts for less than 1% of performance variation Why?? Write down 5 things you have learnt about personality

Provide sporting examples Compare Marten's schematic view Psychological core Typical responses Role-related behaviour Trait Theory Introversion - extroversion dimension Stable - neurotic dimension Q & A.... Who are more likely to continue in sport when it gets tough, athletes with a type A personality, or athletes with a type B personality?

Define personality

Which theory of personality is widely accepted in sport? What are the two components of the theory?

Personality account for less than ............% of performance variation

Is there a right personality to guarantee sporting success? What are the two processes of Bandura's social learning theory? What did Bandura identify as the four main stages of observational learning?

Explain them in sport Pick 3 of these to talk about in your assignment.... Introvert or Extrovert? = ? The sum of the characteristics that make a person unique Lesson Objectives 1. Introduce Personality
2. Marten's Schematic View In your own words, define personality? What are the advantages and disadvantages of trait theory? Pick 5 characteristics that best describe:
Your Personality
Usain Bolt's Personality “Traits are innate characteristics and are thought to be relatively stable. They are highly consistent attributes that exert a widely generalised casual effect on behaviour.”
Trait theory does not believe that the situation or environment has any bearing on a persons behaviour. What problems can occur when modeling athletes? Anti-Social Role Models
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