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The Peloponnesian War
Transcript of The Peloponnesian War
The Epic of the Peloponnesian War By: Jordan Hocking For: EDIM 508: Digital
Media in the Classroom Why? This presentation is intended to cultivate
an understanding of the causes of the
Peloponnesian War through analysis
of various multimedia sources. Standards Alignment: 8.1.7.A: Demonstrate continuity and change over time using sequential order and context of events.
8.1.7.B: Identify and use primary and secondary sources to analyze multiple points of view for historical events.
8.4.7.A: Summarize the social, political, cultural, and economic contributions of individuals and groups in world history.
8.4.7.B: Explain the importance of historical documents, artifacts, and sites which are critical to world history.
8.4.7.C: Differentiate how continuity and change have impacted world history.
8.4.7.D: Explain how conflict and cooperation among groups and organizations have impacted the history of the world. Citations: Further Reading: IRC, (2005). The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 B.C.. [Image]. Available from http://www.discoveryeducation.com/
Horrible Histories BBC. (2013, February 8). Horrible histories - wife swap: Spartans and Athenians [Video file]. Retrieved from http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uLyW5UYPYYs
N.S. Gill. (2013). Timeline of Major Battles and Treaties in the Peloponnesian War. About.com. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/peloponnesianwa r/a/timepelopwar.htm
Thucydides. (1903). History of the Peloponnesian War. (Richard Crawley., Trans.). Adelaide, AUS: J.M. Dent & Co. Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/thucydides/crawley /index.html
The Olympian Goddess. (2013, February 8). The Peloponnesian War video - song from History.com [Video file]. Retrieved from http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZzyuw_lBTM
TV Ontario, (1992). Ancient Civilizations: Program 03: Safekeeping. [Full Video]. Available from http://www.discoveryeducation.com/ The Causes of the Peloponnesian War "The real cause I consider to be the one which was formally most kept out of sight. The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon [Sparta], made war inevitable" (Thucydides). 1. After the Persian Wars, plundered money was stored for all Greeks on the island of Delos, hence the Delian League. Athens would later "steal" the money from treasury to use it to fund its "Golden Age." 3. Sparta was jealous of Athens' wealth. Athens was arrogant and flamboyant. The Causes of the Peloponnesian War The Causes of the Peloponnesian War 2. Sparta united most of the Peloponnesian Peninsula, hence the Peloponnesian League. Both Athens and Sparta sought to add other poleis to their leagues. 4. Despite their Greek identity, both poleis were very different and felt their culture was better than the other's. Both felt compelled to rule over all of Greece. Let's look at the differences between the two poleis. Even, as you will see, the roles of women and children were very different in Athens and Sparta. The Causes of the Peloponnesian War: On a more serious note, the way that the Athenians and Spartans protected themselves is also very telling to the differences between the two. In the next video, take notice that Athens relies on its alliances and elaborate trade networks for protection while Sparta relies on sheer strength. How were Athenian and Spartan women different?
How do the roles of women help you understand the cultures of Athens and Sparta? Now, let's analyze a map of Greece just before the war. Take note to the two alliances as well as those who were neutral and uninvolved in the conflict. The stage is set. Let's look at a timeline of events. The war was fought in three phases. "477 B.C. - The Delian League is formed.
451 B.C. - Athens and Sparta sign five-year treaty.
449 B.C. - Persia and Athens sign peace treaty.
446 B.C. - Athens and Sparta sign 30 years peace treaty.
432 B.C. - Revolt of Potidaea." Before the War Gill Athens (under Pericles and then Nicias) successful until 424. Athens makes little forays on the Peloponnese by sea and Sparta destroys areas in the countryside of Attica. Athens makes a disastrous expedition into Boeotia. They try to recover Amphipolis (422), unsuccessfully. Athens fears more of her allies would desert, so she signs a treaty (Peace of Nicias) that allows her to keep her face, basically setting things back to how they were before the war except for Plataea and Thracian towns. Gill "1st Stage of the Peloponnesian War 431 B.C - Peloponnesian War begins. Siege of Potidaea. Plague in Athens.
429 B.C. - Pericles dies. Siege of Plataea (-427).
428 B.C. - Revolt of Mitylene.
427 B.C. - Athenian Expedition to Sicily. [See map of Sicily and Sardinia]
421 B.C. - Peace of Nicias." Gill "2nd Stage of the Peloponnesian War Corinth forms coalitions against Athens. Alcibiades stirs up trouble and is exiled. Betrays Athens to Sparta. Both sides seek the alliance of Argos but after the Battle of Mantinea, where Argos loses most of her military, Argos no longer matters, although she becomes an Athenian ally.
415-413 B.C - Athenian expedition to Syracuse. Sicily." Gill "3rd Stage of the Peloponnesian War 3rd Stage of the Peloponnesian War from 413-404 (Decelean War or Ionian War)
Under the advice of Alcibiades, Sparta invades Attica, occupying the town of Decelea near Athens [source: Jona Lendering]. Athens continues to send ships and men to Sicily even though it is disastrous. Athens, which had started the war with the advantage in naval battle, loses this advantage to the Corinthians and Syracusans. Sparta then used Persian gold from Cyrus to build her fleet, stirs up trouble with Athenian allies in Ionia, and destroys the Athenian fleet at the Battle of Aegosotami. The Spartans are led by Lysander.
404 - Athens surrenders." In other words... Aftermath of the Peloponnesian War Athens loses power and is ruled by Spartan oligarchs for about 40 years.
New alliances are created and many battles are fought between most of the poleis.
Weakened, all of Greece is conquered by Philip II of Macedon and further united by his son, Alexander the Great by 335 B.C. Additional Primary Source Materials
Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War http://www.livius.org/pb-pem/peloponnesian_war/peloponnesian_war.html#texts http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/t/thucydides/crawley/index.html