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The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty

Q1. Assess how useful your chosen source would be for a historian studying the impact of World War One on the Tsar's Regime.
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Max Birch

on 28 June 2010

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Transcript of The Decline and Fall of the Romanov Dynasty

Double click anywhere & add an idea R.H. Bruce Lockhart, 'Memoirs of a British Agent', Pitnam, London, 1932

Moscow [was] full of rumours and depression... The [German] counter-attacks had already begun, and refugees were streaming into the city and taxing its housing resources to the utmost. [There were] discontent and disorders among the new conscripts in the villages, the wounded did not like going back, the peasants objected to their sons being taken away from the fields. My English friends in the provincial textile factories had become increasingly ancoius about the socialist agitition among the workmen. It had become anti-war as well as anti-German. In Moscow itself there had been bread riots.. Confidence in the Russian arms had given way to a conviction of German invincibility, and every section of the Moscow population ruled bitter resentment against the alleged pro-German policy of the Russian Government...
On June 10th [1915] vast anti-German riots broke out in Moscow. and for three days the city was in the hands of the mob... For the first time since 1905, the mob had felt its power... the fall of Warsaw was the culminating tragedy of the disastrous summer campaign of 1915. It was a blow which could not be hidden from the masses, and naturally there was a great increase in pessimism and peace-talk.. Horrible rumours of Russians manning the trenches with nothing but sticks in their hands percolated through from the front to the country-side.. At factory centres like Ivanovo-Voznesensnk there
anti-government strikes attended in some cases by shooting...
...The autumn advanced... and, if in St. Petersburg there were few people who believed in Russian victory. Moscow adopted the slogan that the war could not be won unless the dark influences in the capital were eliminated. From this moment dates the first of many resolutions demanding a ministry of national defence or of public confidence... By giving in time the six inches of reform which were neccesary [the Tsar] might have saved the yards which a dillusioned country was to take by force afterwards. [However] R.H. Bruce Lockhart, 'Memoirs of a British Agent', Pitnam, London, 1932

Moscow [was] full of rumours and depression... The [German] counter-attacks had already begun, and refugees were streaming into the city and taxing its housing resources to the utmost. [There were] discontent and disorders among the new conscripts in the villages, the wounded did not like going back, the peasants objected to their sons being taken away from the fields. My English friends in the provincial textile factories had become increasingly ancoius about the socialist agitition among the workmen. It had become anti-war as well as anti-German. In Moscow itself there had been bread riots.. Confidence in the Russian arms had given way to a conviction of German invincibility, and every section of the Moscow population ruled bitter resentment against the alleged pro-German policy of the Russian Government...
On June 10th [1915] vast anti-German riots broke out in Moscow. and for three days the city was in the hands of the mob... For the first time since 1905, the mob had felt its power... the fall of Warsaw was the culminating tragedy of the disastrous summer campaign of 1915. It was a blow which could not be hidden from the masses, and naturally there was a great increase in pessimism and peace-talk.. Horrible rumours of Russians manning the trenches with nothing but sticks in their hands percolated through from the front to the country-side.. At factory centres like Ivanovo-Voznesensnk there
anti-government strikes attended in some cases by shooting...
...The autumn advanced... and, if in St. Petersburg there were few people who believed in Russian victory. Moscow adopted the slogan that the war could not be won unless the dark influences in the capital were eliminated. From this moment dates the first of many resolutions demanding a ministry of national defence or of public confidence... By giving in time the six inches of reform which were neccesary [the Tsar] might have saved the yards which a dillusioned country was to take by force afterwards. [However] The Question: Assess how useful your chosen Source would be for a historian studying the impact of World War One on the Tsar's regime. In your answer, consider the perspectives provided by the source and its reliability. The Source: Time and Place Rule R.H. Bruce Lockhart, 'Memoirs of a British Agent', Pitnam, London, 1932 Who and where was Mr Lockhart during the events described? He was appointed Vice-Consul to Moscow in 1914 and was delivering information to Britain concerning Russia's ability to serve as an ally.

He was in Moscow during the events described and kept an extensive series of diaries. Assumptions:
- 'in St. Petersburg there were few people who believed in Russian victory.'
- in consequence the Tsar's reply to those who were working hardest for Russia's victory was to dissolve the Duma...
- Tsar's assumption of the Supreme Command [of the armed forces] was the first milestone on the way to [ruin]. It was the most fatal of [his] many blunders It does appear to put forward a specific view and is very neutral in its language How useful is the source to a historian studying the impact of WWI on the Tsar's Regime
- It provides information on riots (which in turn impact the Tsar's regime)
- Why the riots are occuring
- The status of the Russian War effort (and how the Regime's army has been impacted by the war)
- The Tsar's decisions

It provides insight into the amount of riots occuring
due to the effect of World War 1 The riots are occuring because:
- Soldiers, workers and peasants were all enraged by the conditions
the Russians were under the trenches
-The losses suffered by the Russian's at places such as Warsaw caused chaos
- The population were angered by a supposed 'Pro-German' Tsar
How does this impact the Tsar's Regime? His army is close to mutiny Much of his economic workforce is on strike
The Tsar disbands the Duma...

- 'the Tsar's reply to
those who were working
hardest for Russia's victory
was to dissolve the Duma'... All these facts can be proven by examining the
source which is quite reliable His Regime has suffered a loss [Duma]

and his people are turned against him, diminishing the regime's power The source is reliable and provides a historian with valuable facts relevant for the study the given question: 'Horrible rumours of Russians
manning the trenches with nothing
but sticks in their hands' Perspective:
-Lockhart was a spy at the time of the events.
-The source became an international bestseller and obviously made Lockhart extensive sums of money
- Lockhart's job was to understand and interpret situations.
Reliability Emotive Language:
- 'The six inches of reform which were necessary'
- 'bitter resentment' Cross Reference:
A primary souce in the form of Sydney Reilly (Lockhart's fellow agent in Moscow) backs up the information that Lockhart was a British agent situated in Moscow. Bias The source is quite reliable and now the historian can establish the usefulness of the source
- This is because the author has a negative view of both sides of the conflict neutralising the bias. Audience:
- Mostly British and American pro-democratic citizens.
- They would be against the communists but also opposed to the Tsar's autocracy Source Presentation The source is witting because it was intended to appeal to
readers and sell for money. Lockhart is trying to appeal to readers who were anti-communist
and anti-autocracy. The impacts on the regime are:
- The Tsar's people were turned against him.
- The Tsar's army was damaged.
- The Tsar disbanded the Duma, therefore weakening his regime.
- The Tsar's economy suffered as a result of the war.
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