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Physiological Responses to Injury
Transcript of Physiological Responses to Injury
Extrinsic risk factors
Control of bleeding = hemostatis
An injury is when physical harm occurs to a person
What is scar tissue?
Stages of healing
1) inflammatory stage (days 1-4) .. involves white blood cells which help remove debris and damaged tissue and further help recirculation of the area
The purpose of recovering from injury is to restore the tissue (at injury site) to original state
3 processes of hemostatis
Physiological is the bodies physical mechanisms that
respond to injury
Sports injuries and symptoms
When we bleed during an injury what happens??
Intrinsic risk factors
Coaching , technique, environment, safety hazards
Training effects, individual, postural defects
Role of the coach, equipment and environment
Psychological is how the bodies mental state is affected by injury
Effects for the athlete?
How would this effect an athlete?
Blood clotting mechanism
How can an athlete recover from bleeding?
body's way of stopping injured blood vessels from bleeding
Too much clotting can block blood vessels that are not bleeding
Abnormality in hemostatis can lead to excessive bleeding or excessive clotting
When clotting is poor, even a slight injury to a blood vessel may lead to severe blood loss
When clotting is excessive, small blood vessels in critical places can become clogged with clots
Sports Injuries - in athletic events which can occur from acute trauma and overuse .. other causes??
Importance for athletes
Importance for us
Importance for sport
•Narrowing (constriction) of blood vessels
•Activity of cell-like blood particles that help in blood clotting (platelets)
•Activity of proteins found in blood that work with platelets to help the blood clot (clotting factors)
Process known as the remodelling process
2) proliferative phase (days 7-14) ..where red blood cells called fibroblasts form a glue-like substance, which acts as a scaffold or infrastructure of new tissue to be laid down
3) The remodelling stage.. where more cells are added to the glue and strengthened to form a substance called type 1 collagen, which is thick, strong and resistant
Recap of physiological responses to sports
Why they take place and their role in healing process following injury
Interaction of psychological and physiological factors
how bodies responses change during different stages of healing process
Once injured.. scar tissue plays a vital role in recovery and healing of the injury
Without scar tissue your body won’t heal
Cells form clot (platelets) to seal damaged area and prevent further bleeding.. chemicals mop up and promote oxygenation and nutrition (to aid healing) .. once clear, platelets break down and replaced by fibroblasts .. (this forms with glue to make a scar tissue.. day 7)
Fibroblasts lay down chemicals to begin solidification of scar tissue.. original blood clot begins to dissipate as more cells are laid down to "glue" the torn fibres together again... more specialised cells are mobilised once the glue has formed, called myofibroblasts, which begin to fuse and connect the torn fibres that were damaged initially
Scar tissue (glue) that formed in the proliferation stage begins to orientate itself and becomes more specific to the function of the muscle/tendon.. however new scar tissue remodelled almost always differs from the original muscle/tendon it replaces by having fewer connective tissue cells and fewer blood vessels = isn't 100% and more vulnerable .. 70% strength in 6 months - 2 years
Numerous body responses to injury
Primary damage responses = pain and inflammation
Protective attempt by the body to remove harm and initiate healing process
Injury causes muscle damage
The damaged tissue releases chemicals
Blood vessels widen allowing increased blood flow to the injured area
Loss of function
5 characteristics of inflammation
Soft tissue injuries are any injuries to the skin, muscles, tendons and ligaments in our body, e.g. a sprained ankle ... more common than hard tissue injuries .. vessels rupture. swelling (bruising) .. clotting
Hard tissue injuries occur in bones and cartilages, e.g. a fracture .. results in lengthy healing process with the injury site immobilised in plaster
Pain - injured area swells = pain .. due to the swelling creating pressure on the nerves surrounding the damaged tissue
Redness - injured area looks red because vessels surrounding injury dilate which also makes the area feel warm
Immobility - injured area will show reduced mobility because of the pain and swelling
Swelling - swelling occurs because surrounding blood vessels are ruptured .. allowing blood to bleed into the areas and tissue fluid to gather outside site
Heat - will be present at the injury site during inflammation due to increased blood flow and increased cell metabolism
Once formed .. binds itself to the damaged soft tissue fibers in an effort to draw the damaged fibers back together for repair
Scar tissue is a very weak inflexible material and has a tendency to contract and deform the surrounding tissues.
It means a shortening of muscle, tendon or ligament, which results in a loss of flexibility
It means a weak spot has formed within the soft tissues, which could easily result in further damage
The more severe an injury ..the harder it is to restore damaged tissue to original state
Haematoma - pocket of congealed (semi solid) blood caused by bleeding to a specific area
- bleeding occurs within muscle compartment but does not seep into other tissues .. pressure build up and reduction in strength
Majority of haematoma's in sports injuries are to muscles .. caused by impact or rupture
- blood escapes into surrounding tissues (different muscle compartments) ..much quicker to heal as blood can escape
Outcomes of remodeling are ...
Increase in strength of scar
Reduction in wound size
Vital for the repair of damaged tissue and if muscle is healed well; with scar tissue = reduce risk of further injury
Different tissues heal at different rates.. depends on the site and size of the injury, the blood and nerve supply to the tissue and the age of the person.
It's main functions are to defend the body against harmful substances, dispose of dead or dying tissue and to promote the renewal of normal tissue
- Pain (due to chemicals released by damaged cells).
- Swelling or Edema (due to an influx of fluid into the damaged region).
- Redness (due to vasodilatation- the widening of blood vessels and bleeding in the joint or structure).
- Heat (due to an increase in blood flow to the area).
- Loss of function (due to increased swelling and pain)
Meshwork of fibres formed from fibrous tissue .. contains two types of fibres (fibrin and elastin)
Fibrin or fibrinogen are stiff, non-stretchy, brittle tissue. While elastin is elastic and stretchy tissue!
Specific to injury
- First degree (mildest) – little tearing,pain or swelling; joint stability is good.
Other names for a strain include “torn muscle,” “muscle pull” and “ruptured tendon.”
- Second degree – torn muscle or tendon
tissues; painful, limited motion; possibly some swelling or depression at the spot of the injury
- First degree (mildest) – little tissue tearing; mild tenderness; pain with full range of motion
Sprain = A stretching or tearing of one or more ligaments
Strain = A stretching or tearing of muscle/tendon
of various injuries may
and must be considered during initial diagnosis
Overstretching and and tearing of tissue are two types of injuries
- Second degree - broadest range of damage, with moderate instability and moderate to severe pain and swelling
- Third degree (most severe) – ligament is completely ruptured; joint is unstable; severe pain and swelling; other tissues are often damaged
The severity of a sprain can be classified by the amount of
tissue tearing, impact on joint stability, pain and swelling
- Third degree (most severe) – limited or no movement; pain will be severe at first, but may be painless after the initial injury
Grade l sprains typically take 2-4 weeks or more to regain full mobility and for swelling to fully resolve
Grade II sprains, being a little more severe, make take more like 6-8 weeks
Grade III sprain depends on factors ( surgery or walking boot) .. where surgery is required, the patient is typically in therapy for 12 weeks to 6 months