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The Middle East and Early Islam

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Lisa Healow

on 31 August 2017

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Transcript of The Middle East and Early Islam

Generally does not contain human figures
Muslim artists worked in a range of materials -
wood, metal, ceramics, textiles
Calligraphy (beautifully styled
writing) is often used, appearing
on the walls of mosques and
as household art

A calligram is a poem or phrase in which the calligraphy or words create an image related to the meaning of the words themselves.
Mid East Geography
Sumerians settled as one of the earliest civilizations in 4000 BCE in the Fertile Crescent
In the 1000s CE, the Middle East was at the center of trade routes connecting Europe, China, India, Africa, and the Mediterranean
Origins of Islam
Pre-Islamic Arabs were polytheistic - supreme god called Allah
600s CE - Arabian Peninsula
Trade center - spread widely through North Africa, Central Asia, and Europe by mid-700s, and continued to spread to sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia
Trade center and holy city
Kaaba - a large, cube-shaped structure in the center of the city
Born 570 CE in Mecca
Devoutly religious to pre-Islamic Arab polytheism
610 - Muslims believe he received a message telling him to spread the word of Allah as the one, true God - created new monotheistic religion
Judaism - 1000s BCE

Christianity - 100s CE

Islam - 600s CE
The Middle East and Early Islam
cultural diffusion: the spread of cultural beliefs (like religion) and social activities from one group to another
Meccans did not accept Muhammad's message
Traveled to Yathrib (now Medina) - journey is called hegira, marks first year of Islamic calendar
New religion called Islam - "achieving peace through submission to God"
Followers of Islam are called Muslims
After Muhammad
632 - Muhammad died
Abu Bakr, Muhammad's father in law, was named successor or caliph
Other Muslim leaders had supported Ali
634 - Abu Bakr died
644 -Uthman, supported by the Umayyad - formerly Muhammad's enemies, was named caliph
656 - Uthman assassinated
Civil War
Following Uthman's death, Ali became caliph but then was killed in 661 during a civil war and Umayyad's regained power.
Following Ali's death, most Muslims accepted Umayyad rule - they are called Sunnis
Ali's supporters refused to follow the Umayyad and became known as the Shia or Shi'ite
Sunni means "followers of the Prophet"
Shia means "party of Ali"
Islamic ART
Full transcript