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Cold War

Cold War Unit

Brandon Galbraith

on 18 October 2012

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Transcript of Cold War

Cold War New Military Alliances NATO Warsaw Pact SEATO CENTO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
-members had a democratic, or freely elected, government
-U.S., Canada, Great Britain, Portugal, Spain, France, Belguim, NEtherlands, Luxemberg, Denmark, Norway, West Germany, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Northern Ireland Alliance made up of countries with Communists governments
-Soviet Union, Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria Cold war conflicts in Asia led to this anti-communist alliance, the Southeast Treaty Organization
-U.S., Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand To block the spread of communism in the Middle East, the Central Treaty Organization was established
-Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, and the U.S. The the mid 1950's, the U.S. had entered military alliances with 42 nations Both superpowers had developed the hydrogen bomb and the intercontinental ballistic missles, ICBM's Some Europeans believed that unity would promote peace better than military alliances Rome Treaty
-France, West Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Italy
-Created the EEC (European Economic Community)
-Free-Trade Area, would not place tariffs on imported goods sold by member states Alliances Cold War Conflicts Behind the Iron Curtain Under Stalin, the satellite states followed Soviet example
-Five year plan
-Emphasis on heavy industry
-End of small farms and creation of large farming collectives
-Elimination of all non-Communist parties
-Use of secret police and military force to crush enemies Khrushchev Takes Over -Criticized Stalin's "intolerance, his brutality, his abuse of power
-Tens of millions of people were killed under Stalin, inlcuding loyal Communists
-Policy of de-Stalinization -Reduced the use of terror and released millions of political prisoners.
-Increased persecution of religion
-Some Eastern European countries wanted more changes in the Communist government Protest against Communist broke out in Poland and Hungary
-The Soviet Army crushed the protests but officials blamed Khrushchev In 1957, Khrushchev saw one of the biggest triumphs of his rule... The Soviets surprised and Frightened Americans by launching the first space satellite. Sputnik Sputnik was the world's first orbiting satellite
The Soviets then were the first to place a man in orbit.
-These achievements would then begin the space race In response to the great acheivements, President Kennedy promised to land a man on the moon by the end of the 1960's.
-1969, Niel Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin walked on the surface of the moon.
-This mission cost about $33 billion dollars Space Race Communist Revolution in China The People's Republic of China was formed in 1949
-Chinese Nationalists fled from Chinese Communists to Taiwan
-Mao Zedong claimed victory after more of 20 years -Mao wanted to modernize China as quickly as possible
-He also wanted to eliminate social classes, people would own everything in common
-To achieve these goals, Mao claimed absolute power

TIMELINE OF CHINA IN THE COLD WAR CHINA 1949-1989 1949 1950 U.S. refuses to recognize the People's Republic of China Chinese Troops enter the Korean War, China claims Tibet 1958 Mao launches the Great Leap Forward, a 5 year economic plan. Farms collected into communes, up to 30,000 people lived and worked together 1959-1962 The Great Leap Forward results in widespread hunger and starvation 1966-1976 Mao introduces the Cultural Revolution in an effort to rid China of communist opposition 1966 Mao forms the Red Guard, revolutionary groups made up mostly of young people. They traveled through the countryside destroying the "Four Olds" 1971 The People's Republic of China replaces Taiwan at the United Nations -President Richard Nixon visits the People's Republic of China 1972 1976 Mao dies at the age of 82. Deng Xiaoping takes power. He introduces the Four Modernizations 1979 The U.S. and China establish diplomatic relations 1989 Troops open fire on pro-democracy students in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, the Capital Korean War WWII left Korea a divided nation
-38th parallel
-Soviet in the north, U.S. in the south
-Setting the Stage... -North Korea would carry out a sneak attack with the backing of Stalin
-The North Korean Army would sweep down south and capture the South Korean Capital
-Truman convinced the U.N. to send troops Douglas MacArthur led the U.N. troops and pushed the North Koreans back across the 38th parallel
-Mao Zedong saw the troops as a threat to China and ordered 500,000 troops into Korea
-The U.N. troops were pushed southward
-MacArthur wanted to drop atomic bombs on China. Truman refused to use atomic weapons
-After MacArthur objected, Truman fired him
-After three years of no clear winner, an armistice was signed
-Nothing changed
-2.5 million will lose their lives Vietnam War Vietnam entered the Cold War as a divided country
-Ho Chi Minh declared the country independent but the French wanted to regain control of the region
-Ho Chi Minh led a group called the Vietminh to fight the French The U.S. feared that Ho Chi Minh was communists and would spread communist throughout Asia
-"Domino Theory"
-The French would regain Vietnam but decided to also make peace with the Vietminh Geneva Accords
-divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel
-Ho Chi Minh in the North, an American-backed government in the south
-Required elections to be held to unite both sides, but South Vietnam refused to participate As the conflict continued, China and the Soviets began to send weapons to North Vietnam
-Believement in containing communism and the domino theory, the U.S. sent money, weapons and military advisors
-By 1969, 500,000 American soldiers would be fighting in Vietnam. U.S. involvement divided the nation
-1973, President Nixon started to withdraw U.S. forces
-58,000 U.S. soldier will lose thier lives Cuban Missile Crisis U.S. interest in Cuba
-90 miles south of Florida
-Some politicians wanted to add it as a state
-U.S. supported the leader, who was corrupt
-Fidel Castro would overthrow the Cuban government and declare the country a Communist nation Castro began making changes to the country and with allies
-Allowed the Soviet Union to provide military aid
-The U.S. protested the communist influence
-The U.S. would then discover the Cubans had started to build long range missle bases President Kennedy announced on T.V. that Soviet missiles were in Cuba and were a threat to U.S. security
-He ordered the navy to blockade Cuba to prevent more missiles from entering
-Kennedy informed the Soviets that if they fired any missiles at the U.S., he would order a nuclear attack Khrushchev ordered Soviet ships to continue to Cuba
-After hearing Kennedy's speech, he ordered some ships back
-The Soviets and the U.S. would come to an agreement. The other ships turned around and the Soviet missiles were removed
-Nuclear war had been avoided
-This crisis would contribute to Khrushchev's fall from power The closest the U.S. has come to nuclear war Fall of Soviet Communism In the late 1980's eastern European countries were facing economic struggles, the Soviets would also struggle... Thaw in the Cold War After the Cuban Missile Crisis, many communist leaders argued that Khrushchev was weak for backing down to Kennedy
-Brezhnev would take control after Khrushchev "retired"
-He would continue Stalin's policy of arresting dissidents
-Brezhnev Doctrine- Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Eastern European country that posed a threat to communism
-Policy of Detente was agreed by Nixon and Brezhnev Afghanistan and the end of Detente Afghanistan had taken steps toward democracy
-The Soivet Union invaded the country
-Soviets v. Muslim rebels
-President Carter stopped shipments of grain to the Soviets, and did not participate in the 1980 Olympics
-President Reagan also gave aid to Muslim Rebels
-Soviets lost 15,000 soldiers before withdrawing Changes in the Soviet Union The nation suffered from many problems
-An economy growing weaker
-severe shortages
-poor working conditions
-a huge bureaucracy Gorbachev would be last political leader of the Soviet Union
-He believed the Soviets could not afford the arms race
-Reagan and Gorbachev would sign the Intermediate-range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty
-Perestroika- restructuring, non- communist parties allowed and some free enterprise
-Glasnost- Soviet citizens could say or write what they thought without being punished
-Demokratizatsiya- allowed more than one Communist candidate to run for office Revolutions in Eastern Europe Gorbachev made it clear that he would not interfere with other countries reforms
-Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Poland, and Bulgaria had peaceful revolutions
-Germany reunited as one democratic nation Collapse of the Soviet Union Seeing that nationalist movements were beginning to rise, Communist leaders tried to stage a military coup, but it failed
-All 15 Soviet Republics declared their independence, Yelstin would become the president of Russia and outlawed the Communist Party
-The end of the Communist Party in 1991 signalled the Cold War coming to an end kjasdkjsakfd By the mid 1950's, the U.S. had entered into alliances with 42 nations
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