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Timeline

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Yuki Lin

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Transcript of Timeline


1800
1850
1750
2000
Scientific Contributions to the
Theory of Evolution

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was a French naturalist and came up with his own Theory of Evolution that gave Charles Darwin help on his
Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection
. Charles Darwin later in his book “The origin of Life” credit to Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s work of all the
current species evolved from other species
but not from god’s creation. When he presented this idea, it is not accepted by religious groups; instead, his idea was believed by many scientists.

In addition, he proposed the idea of
Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
by using the giraffes as an example. The giraffes that use its neck to stretch for high leaves will eventually have longer neck because it has been adapted to the environment. Thus, the traits of the long neck will be passed onto the offspring as he suggested. On the other side, traits that did not use will eventually disappear and will also pass the disuse trait to its offspring. This theory by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck was believed by Charles Darwin and he developed his own idea of vestigial structure from his
Use and Disuse Theory
.

However, Charles Darwin did not fully believe on the theory of evolution Jean-Baptiste Lamarck had made. Instead, Charles Darwin made arguments based on Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s points opposition to the development of simple to complex. Rather, organisms
adapted
to the surrounding environment and
developed complex traits
. Many of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s ideas contributed to Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution not only because some of his ideas were creditable, but even if some theory we know it is not true, it still gave Charles Darwin ideas and helped him to developed his own ideas to his own theory of evolution by developing argument on the opposite side.
Charles Lyell (1797-1875)
Charles Lyell was a Scottish geologist. He came up with the
Theory of Uniformitarianism
which indicated Earth is
gradually changing by a small difference
with a
constant rate
based on James Hutton’s theory. Even with a small difference occurred in the past, it will leads to a huge difference in the future due to the accumulation of changes.

He opposed Georges Cuvier’s
Theory of Catastrophic
that refers million and billion of years ago, the catastrophic events was so huge that it exterminated all the species at a particular area, but he believed that the area will be soon living with other animals in closer area. This is because through his study from the strata of rocks where fossils belong, he noticed that the remains of different organisms can be found on different layers of rock. Thus, he thought after each catastrophic events, a new layer of rocks were formed, trapped the organisms living at that particular area at a specific time.

Charles Lyell opposed Georges Cuvier’s theory because he did not believe that Earth’s environment changed suddenly just by huge catastrophic events. Instead, it is from the gradual changes over long periods of time; therefore, making the Earth’s environment change. Charles Lyell’s
Theory of uniformitarianism
inspired Charles Darwin because there is gradual changes occurring on Earth, different
organisms could be slowly changing
as well to adapt the changing environment in order to survive. Even if there was a small difference between the similar organisms, through the gradual changes in time, the small difference would be much different between the two similar organisms that was in the past. Thus, proving some
organisms shared similar traits could be evolved from the same ancestor over long time
.Therefore, he contributed to the
Theory of Evolution
based on his thought of gradual changes is occurring on Earth that inspired Charles Darwin.
Mary Anning (1799-1847)
Mary Anning was a female fossil hunter in England who lived in a town in Dorset beside the sea. The seashore became the place where she found animal fossils that people at that time have no idea of the existence of these creatures and she helped to gain more knowledge for everyone. In addition, Mary Anning contributed to Charles Darwin’s
Theory of Evolution
by finding fossils that help Darwin explain the connection of some existing and pre-existed creatures.

Dorset, a county where Mary Anning did all her important findings of fossils, was once below the sea two hundred million years ago. Before Dorset became above the water, all the
prehistoric creatures
was once alive and living above the land where people live later. Fossil was formed after an organism rest on the sediment and more sediments was added on top. Due to the strong compression, the lower sediments which contains the organism’s body turned to rock and kept its remain. Mary Anning was the first to found the intact fossil of the “
ichthyosaurus
” and introduce new knowledge about creatures from million and billion of years ago. More achievements of fossil hunting was made when she found the fossil of
plesiosaur
, a large marine reptile, flying reptile as well as an ancient fish fossil.

Her findings of the fossils showed the public what creatures lived billion and million of years ago and provided many information to other scientists about unknown pre-existed creatures. Thus, she provided clues on how some pre-existed creatures had evolved to some modern creatures from the examination of the fossil, possibly by examining the
morphology
of the skeletons and the
physiology
of how the body functions. Therefore, Mary Anning made important achievements on hunting fossils that provided essential information of the
extinct creatures and their connection to the living organisms
regard to how evolution had made some living organisms shares similarities to the creatures in the fossils because Darwin’s theory of evolution is based on how had organisms evolved from its ancestral form to another form that has specific traits from adaptation over time to become the existing creatures.
Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)
Gregor Johann Mendel had helped Charles Darwin to explain with
genetics and heredity
. Charles Darwin proposed how
variation
in a population could give some
individual species advantage
but he could not explain
how this advantageous trait could be pass on
in the population without eliminating it since the parent with advantageous traits might combine with a parent that has non-advantageous trait onto the offspring.

Gregor Johann Mendel helped explained the
advantageous traits

will not be eliminated
in the population; instead, it will carry on to the the next generations. According to Mendel’s
Law of Genetics
, traits will appear on certain generations but not always shown on every generations. Mendel did the pea experiment to demonstrate genetics. He took green pea plants and cross breed with yellow pea plants. From his first observation, the pea plants produced all yellow color offspring. He took the first experiment’s offspring that only appears yellow and crossbreed them. In this experiment, 2001 offspring is green and 4021 is yellow. This proved Mendel’s law of genetics that genes will not be eliminated within a population but it might appear in certain generations. Thus, this experiment gave the answer to Charles Darwin’s uncertainties of inherited genes of how some advantageous genes can be pass on through the long process of evolution without eliminated out of the population.

In addition, Mendel’s
Law of Segregation
said each of the parent passed a certain allele to its offspring, and the
trait that the offspring will show inherited from its parent will have no rules
. This helped explain why the second generation from the pea plant will have two colors only from yellow color pea plant. It is because the yellow color pea plants inherited both green and yellow genes but only showing the yellow trait. Therefore, it has a possibility of both colors in any following generations. Mendel’s experiment was a great example to explain Darwin’s question on certain advantageous trait in individual will not be disappear in the population on the next generations, the genes that contains the advantageous trait from the parent will always be in the offspring but might not always shown on the offspring itself unless there is a mutation in the genes of the offspring that removes the advantageous trait.
Stephen Jay Gould(1941~2002)
theory of punctuated equilibrium
Motoo Kimura (1924-1993)
http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/evolution/public/profiles/kimura.html
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
(1707-1788)
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802)
Alfred Wallace (1823-1913)
He was a 
French naturalist
 who became the keeper of French botanical garden. According to Buffon‘s research, he believed that living organisms 
do change
 
over time, and  it could be generated under the
ideal environmental conditions
.




Buffon also believed that life is originated and divided into a number of different types called  “
internal mould
”,  which could organized each particles and create distinct individual creature. Morover,he said during this process , life changed. As a species moved into a new habitats, the organic particles that could create new individuals will change.In fact, the particles could change a species’ mould. In conclusion, Buffon was proposing a sort of
proto-evolution
.
Figure1.2 Buffon believed that modern Indian and African elephants were migratory descendants of Siberian mammoths.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/images/history/elephant_migrat.gif
Carl Linnaeus, also known as
Carl von Linné
or
Carolus Linnaeus
.Linnaeus's taxonomy was based on the number and arrangement of the reproductive organs in a flower; a plant's class was determined by its stamens which is the male organs, and its order by its pistils (the female organs). He confirmed that in the stamens and pistils of flowers lay the basis for the classification of plants which ends up in many groupings that will seem very unnatural.So he invented 
binomial nomenclature
, which is given a
 
Genus name
 to organism and follow by 
species name
. And this naming system helped Darwin a lot and developed
a hierarchical system
for classification of organisms that  would become universally accepted in the scientific world today.
Alfred Wallace was
British naturalist
, he
co-authored
with Charles Darwin’s on “On the Tendency of Species to Form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection (1858). Additionally he is credited to
co-discovering

natural selection
; because he noticed that living organism will possess a particular traits or characteristics in order to survive, and it really depends on their environments. So he drew to his conclusion that all the species will go through a
gradual change
during a long period of time, which results in evolution. In addition, Wallace’s theory was very
similar to Darwin’s theory
; as a result, in 1858 they decided to issue a
joint publication
.
Figure1.1 is showing a portrait of Buffon。
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Buffon_1707-1788.jpg
Figure 1.1
Figure 1.2
By: Jiamin Huang, Yuki Lin, Olivia Li, Shannon Weng
Figure 1.3
Figure 1.3 Carl Linnaeus created organized system to name the organism.

http://media1.shmoop.com/images/biology/biobook_taxonomy_graphik_6.png
He was Charles Darwin’s grandfather, and was one of the leading intellectual person at that time. He created one of the first formal theories on evolution in
Zoonomia
, or,
The Laws of Organic Life
(1794-1796).


Figure 1.4 Zoonomia is a medical work written
by Erasmus Darwin which dealing with pathology
,anatomy and psychology

http://faculty.baruch.cuny.edu/naturalscience/
biology/darwin/biography/erasmus_darwin/
images/zoonomia.gif

Erasmus Darwin did not come up with the idea of natural selection, but he did discuss some ideas that his grandson elaborated later on, which included how does life evolve from the common ancestor, and forming varies of organisms . He also tried to solve the question of how one species could evolve into another. Moreover, he also talked about how competition and
sexual selection
could cause changes in species; furthermore he used his observations of domesticated animals, the behaviour of wildlife, and his vast knowledge also contributed many different other fields, such as
paleontology, biogeography, , embryology, and anatomy
.







Figure 1.5 a portrait of Alfred Wallace with
his signature.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Alfred_Russel_Wallace_-_Project_Gutenberg_eText_14558.jpg
Works Cited
"Ancient Life: Comte De Buffon." Old Earth, Ancient Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://evolution.berkeley.edu>.

"Buffon, Georges, Comte De (1707-1788) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography." Buffon, Georges, Comte
De (1707-1788) -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Scientific Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://scienceworld.wolfram.com>.

"Carl Linnaeus." Carl Linnaeus. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/linnaeus.html>.

"Charles Darwin & Evolution." Charles Darwin & Evolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015.
<http://darwin200.christs.cam.ac.uk>.

Dunlop, Jenna, et al. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Biology 11. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2010. Print.

“Early Concepts of Evolution: Jean Baptiste Lamarck.” Understanding Evolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2015.
<http://evolution.berkeley.edu>.

"Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802)." Erasmus Darwin. N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu>.

“Mary Anning.” BBC. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. <http://www.bbc.co.uk>.

McCarthy, Eugene M. “Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.” Macroevolution.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.macroevolution.net>.

“Mendel, Darwin and Evolution.” Scientus.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.scientus.org>.

"Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace." Natural Selection: Charles Darwin & Alfred Russel Wallace.
N.p., n.d. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. <http://evolution.berkeley.edu>.

Racine, Valerie. “Gregors Cuvier (1769-1832).” The Embryo Project Encyclopedia. N.p., 17 Feb. 2015. Web. 03 Apr. 2015.
<https://embryo.asu.edu>.

Venkatesan, Vijay. “Charles Lyell.” Rice Catalyst. N.p., 3 Nov. 2011. Web. 03 Apr. 2015. <http://catalyst.rice.edu>.


PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/2/l_062_01.html>

"Sewall Wright | Biography - American Geneticist." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649555/Sewall-Wright>

PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/5/l_035_01.html>

"Documents on Molecular Evolution." Documents on Molecular Evolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.<http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/evolution/public/profiles/kimura.html>
Reference (Images etc.)
http://www.notablebiographies.com/Gi-He/Gould-Stephen-Jay.html
Effective:
Charles Darwin understood that evolution was a slow and gradual process.By gradual, with a species evolving and accumulating small variations over long periods of time until a new species was born.
If evolution is gradual, there should be a fossilized record of small, incremental changes on the way to a new species. But in many cases, scientists have been unable to find most of these intermediate forms.
The theory of punctuated equilibrium give a explanation to this problem.
Theory
:
1.Species are generally stable, changing little for millions of years. This leisurely pace is "punctuated" by a
rapid burst

of change that results in a new species and that leaves
few fossils
behind.
2.The changes leading to a new species don't usually occur in the mainstream population of an organism.Rather, speciation is more likely at the
edge of a population
, where a small group can easily become separated geographically from the main body and undergo changes that can create a survival advantage and thus produce a new species.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/5/image_pop/l_035_01.html
Figure 1.6
Inheritance of acquired characteristics by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck that inspired Charles Darwin. Digital image.
Pixgood.com
. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015
<http://www.betavak.nl/Lamarck.jpg>.

Figure 1.7
The Ichthyosaur Found by Mary Anning.
Digital image.
Cumulosylimbos.blogspot.ca
. N.p., 24 May 2012. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.

Figure 1.8
Gregor Johann Mendel's genetic experiment with pea plants. Digital image.
Pixshark.com
. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
<http://pixshark.com/gregor-mendel-pea-plants-for-kids.htm>.

Figure 1.9
Tucker, Jennifer. Evolution of ape to man by evolution. Digital image.
Boston Globe
. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.bostonglobe.com/rw//Boston/2011-2020/WebGraphics/Ideas/BostonGlobe.com/2012/10/ascent/img/evolution_early_man.jpg>.

Figure 1.6
inheritance of acquired characteristics by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck that inspired Charles Darwin

http://www.betavak.nl/Lamarck.jpg
Figure 1.7
The ichthyosaurus fossil Mary Anning found

http://cumulosylimbos.blogspot.ca/2012/05/mary-anning-fossil-hunting-passion.html
Figure 1.1
Buffon, Georges Louis Leclerc, Comte De
. Digital image.
Biographical Dictionary
, 4 Sept. 2007. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
<http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5e/Buffon_1707-1788.jpg>.

Figure 1.2
Old Earth, Ancient Life: Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte De Buffon.
Digital image.
Understanding Evolution. University of California Museum of Paleontology,
n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/history_06>

Figure 1.3
Histroy of Taxonomy
. Digital image.
Shmoop
. Shmoop University, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.shmoop.com/taxonomy/taxonomy-history.html>.

Figure 1.4
Species — Their Origins and Adaptations
. Digital image.
150 Years of On the Origin of Species: The Historical Journey from Specimens to Species to Genes
.
University of Missouri, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. <https://library.missouri.edu/exhibits/darwin/species.htm>.

Figure 1.5
Alfred Russel Wallace : Alfred Wallace : A. R. Wallace :
. Digital image.
The Alfred Russel Wallace Page
. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015.
<http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/index1.htm>.




Ernst Mayr (1904~2005)
Figure 1.8
Gregor Johann Mendel's genetic experiment with pea plants

http://www.creationtheory.com/images/genetics_s_peapods.jpg
Theory
: 1
.Mayr proposed that when a population of organisms becomes
separated
from the main group by
time
or
geography
, they eventually evolve
different traits
and can no longer interbreed. (The traits that evolve during the period of isolation are called "
isolating mechanisms
," and they discourage the two populations from interbreeding. )
2.
Mayr said that the development of many
new species
is what leads to evolutionary progress. "Without speciation, there would be no diversification of the organic world, no adaptive radiation, and very little evolutionary progress. The species, is the keystone of evolution."
Figure 1.9 Charles Darwin's Theory of Evolution was inspired by Charles Lyell's theory of uniformitarianism

http://www.bostonglobe.com/rw//Boston/2011-2020/WebGraphics/Ideas/BostonGlobe.com/2012/10/ascent/img/evolution_early_man.jpg
background
:How and why do species originate? Darwin described evolution as a continuous, gradual change over time, but species are distinct from each other, suggesting that some process has created a discontinuity, or gap between them.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/2/l_062_01.html
Figure 1.11
Ernst Mayr
Sewall Wright(1889~1988)
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649555/Sewall-Wright
Weismann raised a famous theory, called "
germplasm theory
," in 1883. The

“germplasm theory” proposed that organisms were comprised by two fundamental

parts ---
Germplasm
and
somatoplasm
. Weismann thought that in organisms’

lifetime, the changes caused by the external environment, and the changes caused by

using or not using the organs were only shown by the somatoplasm, regardless of

germplasm, so the acquired traits could not be inherited. He also thought that

germplasm only existed in the nuclear chromatin, and the chromatin was present in

the
idant
, which was formed by lots of
id
in the nucleus. The id also contained a lot

of particulate material, called a
determinant
; the determinant may be further divided

into smaller units ---
plastidule
, which is the smallest unit of life. With

ontogeny, each determinant gradually dispersed into the appropriate cells, at the end

each cell would contained only one determinant. Plastidule could pass through

the nuclear membrane and go into the cytoplasm, then cause the determinant to

become active, and made sure the differentiation of the cells occured. The germplasm

(sexual cells) would accumulate all the plastidule of of the organism, and pass it to the

next generation.
August Weismann (1883)
https://www.google.ca/search?q=august+weismann&biw=1600&bih=733&stick=H4sIAAAAAAAAAGOovnz8BQMD4xwOlkeM05i5BV7-uCcs1cM8ac3Ja4ytzFxcwRn55a55JZkllULfmLjYoEw-Lh
Mutationism is an evolutionary theory. It is proposed by a Dutch plant geneticist,

called Hugo de Vries. In 1886, he saw some variant evening primroses(Oenothera),

so he got some home to plant, and afterwards he found that there were a lot of

variations in the offspring. For example, there was one evening primrose, which he

could get eight or nine mutants from after several plant generations. Some were tall,

some were particularly small, some had very short styles , some had red veins and so

on. These variations could all be inherited. Hugo de Vries thought they were new

species, and he called these remarkable variations as “mutation,” and published the

book 《Die Mutationstheore》 in 1901 ~ 1903. This book advocated that "new

species is sudden, it appears with no visible hint and no transition. " Later,

Cytogenetics studies showed that the the variations of evening primroses were due to

chromosomal aberrations. The appeared variants could not be called “new species,”

since it could still reproduce through cross-breeding. This phenomenon is relatively

rare in nature.
Hugo De Vries (1926)
Morgan devoted his life to embryology and genetics research. on the basis of

Mendel's laws, he created the modern genetic theory. He had studied a variety of

organisms (including many species of marine organisms) and biological problems. He

used Drosophila to do genetics research, and found that chromosome was the carrier

of the gene, and established the sex-linkage law. He also found the linkage, exchange

and separate phenomenon between genes that located on the same chromosome, and

established the third law of hereditism- law of linkage and crossing-over. He located

more than 400 kinds of mutated genes on the chromosomes, and made a chromosome

maps, which was the genetic linkage map of . In 1926, he Published the book 《The

Theory of the Gene》 , which specifically describe the basic concept of genes.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945)
https://www.google.ca/search?q=drosophila+linked+genes&biw=1052&bih=732&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=8RAmVdypB8njsAWR-YFA&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ#
https://www.google.ca/search?q=drosophila+linked+genes&biw=1052&bih=7
2015
Professor Deng Xingwang is a world famous biologist, he currently is a professor of

Peking Yangtze, tenured professor at Yale University molecular in the cellular and developmental

biology department. Professor Deng Xingwang engaged on plant molecular genetics and

physiology.In 1995, because of his research in the regulation of plant photomorphogenesis (related

Genes), he made outstanding achievements, and won the US Presidential Award for young

teachers. In 2013, he won the most important award in the field of plant molecular biology---

Kuhmo. He has published several influential scholarly articles on "cell", "science" and "natural"

and other authoritative publications in the world. The achievement of his Laboratory achieves is at

a world leading level, their research has become the industry standard. On April 30, 2014, he was

elected to be the Fellow of the American Academy of New Branch.
Xingwang Deng (1962-Present)
http://baike.baidu.com/subview/1554454/10732045.htm

Theory
:concept of
genetic drift
, says that when small populations of a species are
isolated, out of pure chance the few
individuals who carry certain relatively rare
genes may fail to transmit them. The genes may therefore
disappear
and their loss may lead to the emergence of new species.
1900
Theory
:1.
Mutations
that are not deleterious are assumed to be mostly
neutral
rather than beneficial.
2.the molecular level most evolutionary changes and most of the variation within and between species is not caused by natural selection but by
random drift
of
mutant alleles
that are neutral.
According to Kimura, the theory applies only for evolution at the
molecular level
, and phenotypic evolution is controlled by natural selection, as postulated by Charles Darwin.
figure 1.10 Sewall Wright
figure 1.12
Stephen Jay Gould
figure 1.13theory of punctuated equilibrium
figure 1.14 Motoo Kimura
Figure 1.10
"Sewall Wright | Biography - American Geneticist." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/649555/Sewall-Wright>
figure 1.11
"Sewall Wright | Biography - American Geneticist." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/06/2/l_062_01.html>
figure 1.12
"World Biography." Stephen Jay Gould Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.notablebiographies.com/Gi-He/Gould-Stephen-Jay.html>
figure 1.13
PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.
<http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/5/image_pop/l_035_01.html>
figure 1.14
"Documents on Molecular Evolution." Documents on Molecular Evolution. N.p., n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2015.
<http://authors.library.caltech.edu/5456/1/hrst.mit.edu/hrs/evolution/public/profiles/kimura.html
1950
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