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Section 12.2 - The Mongol Conquests

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by

Sherifa Amin

on 22 January 2014

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Transcript of Section 12.2 - The Mongol Conquests

Section 12.2 - The Mongol Conquests
Nomads of the Asian Steppe
The Rise of the Mongols
The Mongol Empire
Eurasian Steppe
Europe + Asia
Open grassland plains with no trees
Living in the Steppe:
On the move
Herded animals
Skilled in horseback
Discipline
Ruthlessness
Courageous in battle
Nomads
Seasonal patterns
Conflicts over water & grassland
Asian nomads:
Depended on animals for food, clothing & housing
Ate meat & drank milk
Wore clothes made from skins & wool
Lived in tents
Traveled in kinship groups (clans), each with a common ancestor
Two Significant Things About The Steppe:
1) Land route connecting Europe & Asia

2) Home to nomadic people who often conquered their neighbors
Steppe Nomads vs Settled Societies
Constant interaction between nomadic people & settled people
Sometimes peaceful trade
Other times nomads invaded towns & villages
If the state or empire was strong, they could defend themselves
If the state or empire was weak, they could be completely conquered by the nomads
Many unorganized clans roaming the steppe

Around 1200 One clan leader named Temujin united the Mongols under his leadership

He took the title "Genghis Khan" meaning the "universal ruler" of all the Mongol clans
Genghis the Conqueror - Why Was He So Successful? (p. 332)
1) Brilliant organizer

2) Gifted strategist

3) Used cruelty as a weapon
Genghis Khan died in 1227

His successors continued to expand the Mongol Empire

In less than 50 years, the Mongols ruled from China to Poland
The Khanates
After Genghis's death, his sons & grandsons ruled
By 1260, the Mongol Empire was divided into four regions, or khanates

1. The Khanate of the Great Khan
2. The Khanate of Chagatai
3. The Ilkhanate
4. The Khanate of the Golden Horde

A descendant of Genghis Khan ruled each khanate
Map page 334
Next: Mongols - Good or Bad?
Full transcript