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The Human Body
Transcript of The Human Body
The respiratory system provides for intake of oxygen, elimination of carbon dioxide, regulates blood pH , contains receptors for sense of smell, filters air, produces sound, and rids body of heat and water in exhaled air.
The Nasal Cavity (Nose)
The nose is a mucosa lined cavity on either side of the nasal septum that opens onto the face at the external nares and into the nasopharynx at the internal nares.
Lungs are the major organs of respiration that lie on either side of the thoracic cavity. They take in oxygen through the nasal cavity.
Role in Homeostasis
The respiratory system depends on the cardiovascular system to transport blood containing carbon dioxide and oxygen between the lungs and tissue cells.
Specialist in diagnosing and treating lung diseases and conditions, and evaluating upper respiratory tract and heart. Examples of conditions are pneumonia, asthma, tuberculosis, and chest infection.
Treat people with cardiopulmonary disorders, provide care and life support to patients in the ER, ICU, and General Hospital, work in pulmonary diagnostics, and rehab.
Disease: Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lungs. Lung cancer usually goes undetected until it's late stages, although signs and symptoms include chronic cough and spitting up of blood from the lungs, and are related to the location of the tumor. 85% of lung cancer is preventable in the fact that it is mainly caused by smoking.
Asthma can be defined as chronic airway inflammation, airway hypersensitivity to a variety of stimuli, and airway obstruction. Airway obstruction can be caused by muscle spasms in the walls of smaller bronchioles or swelling of the mucosa of airways, and increased mucos secretion. Triggers include emotional upset, exercise, breathing cold air, allergies, and aspirin.
Disorder: Asthma ctn'd.
Symptoms include difficulty breathing, coughing, wheezing, chest tightness, fatigue, moist skin, and anxiety. Asthma is partially reversible with treatment or spontaneaoty, and is more commonly seen in children.
The Circulatory System
The cardiovascular system is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and cellular waste throughout the body. It is powered by the heart, it's main organ.
The heart is a muscular pumping organ medial to the lungs. It easily pumps about 5 L of blood through the body in a minute.
Blood vessels are the highways that allow blood to flow quickly and efficiently from the heart to every region of the body and back again. There are three types of blood vessels: capillaries, arteries, and veins. They line the entire circulatory system.
Role in Homeostasis
Blood circulates through exercising muscle removing heat and lactic acid, aiding the muscular system.
Cardiologists are physicians who diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiologists
Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiologists use technical equipment to diagnose and treat abnormal heart rhythms and is a specialist in cardiovascular disease.
Heart Failure simply means the heart is not pumping as well as it should, which leads to salt and water retention. Symptoms include shortness of breath, swelling and congested lungs, and rapid/irregular heartbeats
Anemia is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced. There are many types of Anemia, one of which is Iron-deficiency anemia. It is cause by inadequate absorption of iron and poses a greater risk on women due to blood loss during the menstrual cycle.
The Reproductive System is a collection of organs that work together for the purpose of producing new life. Organs in the male include the testes and penis, while organs in the female consist of the vagina and uterus.
Urologists specialize in knowledge and skill regarding problems of the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs. An Andrologist is a medical doctor who provides diagnosis and treatment to men with reproductive health issues such as infertility, hormonal disorders, and erectile dysfunction.
Disease: Genital Herpes
Genital Herpes are caused by type 2 herpes simplex virus. It produces painful blisters on the external genitalia and there is no cure. Symptoms include cracking, red areas around the genitals, itching, tingling, headaches, small blisters, and flu-like symptoms.
Disorder: Testicular Cancer
Testicular cancer is the most common male cancer and yet the most curable. It mainly affects men ages 20-35 and early signs include a mass in the testes with heaviness and is usually painless.
Gynecologists are physicians who deal with the health and treatment of disease of the female reproductive system and breasts. Urologists also deal with problems of the urinary tract and an Obstetrician is a doctor who cares for a female during pregnancy and labor.
Endometriosis is a condition involving the colonization of the abdominal/pelvic cavity with endometrial tissue. Symptoms include very painful menstrual cramps, pain during sex, chronic pain in back and lower pelvis, and spotting between periods.
Premenstrual symptom is severe physical and emotional distress during the luteal phase of the reproductive cycle. Signs increase until the onset of menstruation and vary highly between women. Symptoms include weight gain, breast swelling, tenderness of the breasts, abdominal distension, backaches, joint pain, depression, and anxiety. The cause is unknown.
The Nervous System
The nervous system shares the biggest responsibility along with the endocrine system for maintaining homeostasis. It consists of the Central Nervous System and the Peripheral Nervous System. It regulates body temp. through nerve impulses, interprets and responds to changes by bringing about muscular contractions or glandular secretions.
The Brain and Spinal Cord
The brain is a mass of nervous tissue in the cranium cavity. It controls all body functions. The spinal cord is a mass of nerve tissue located in the vertebral canal from which pains of spinal nerves originate.
Disorder: Spinal Cord Injury
Spinal cord injury can be described as damage by a tumor either within or adjacent to the spinal cord, herniated intervertebral discs, bloodclots, or penetrating wounds. Paralysis may occur depending on area of damage.
Disease: Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's is a disabling senile dementia which results in symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, and trouble remembering recent events.
Neurologists are medical doctors who treat nervous system disorders. Neuro surgeons are surgeons who operate as a treatment team for nervous system disorders and on the brain.
Role in Homeostasis
The Nervous System plays a big part in homeostasis as in works to help the integumentary system as sympathetic nerves of the ANS control contraction of smooth muscles attached to hair follicles and secretion of perspiration from sweat glands.
The Muscular System
Participates in bringing about movement, maintains posture, produces heat, regulating organ volume, and moving substances in the body.
Skeletal Muscle Tissue is the muscle attached to the bones and moves parts of the organ specialized for contraction. Cardiac Muscle Tissue is found only in the heart, is involuntary, and is stimulated by an intrinsic conduction system and Autonomic Motor Nerves.
Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Tissue
Rheumatologists diagnose, treat, and medically manage patients with arthritis and other diseases including health issues that affect joints, muscles, and bones. Orthopedists are physicians who correct functional abnormalities of the bones, and also act as surgeons treating injuries to bones.
Role in Homeostasis
The Muscular System provides protection and support for organs in the Digestive System in the abdominal cavity, alternating transaction and relaxation of skeletal muscles, and moves contents through the stomach and the digestive tract.
Disease: Muscular Dystrophy
Muscular Dystrophy is genetic disease that damages muscle fibers. Symptoms include weakness, lack of coordination, and loss of mobility.
Disorder: Myasthenia Gravis
A chronic, progressive neuromuscular disease in which innapropriate antibodies bind and block receptors, to the extent that receptors become dysfunctional and muscles weaken. Death may occur from paralysis and the disorder is more common in women and in face and neck muscles.
The Skeletal System
The skeletal system supports and protects the body, assists with body movements, stores cells that produce blood cells, and stores mineral and lipids. Orthopedics are responsible for treating the entire skeletal system using X-rays, MRIs, bone density and marrow tests, and bone scans.
Red and Yellow Bone Marrow
Red bone marrow is connective tissue, produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Yellow blood cells store Tryglycerides and consists mainly of adipose cells and few blood cells.
Osteoporosis is a condition of porous bones, in which bone mass becomes so depleted that skeleton can no longer tolerate mechanical stresses. It afflicts the entire skeletal system, with shrinkage of vertebrae, height loss, hunched back, and bone pain. Osteoporosis is most common in women because their bones have less mass and estrogen declines during menopause.
Rheumatoid Arthritis is a disease of the immune system in which it mistakenly attacks healthy cells, causing joint pain, fluid buildup, and inflammation.
The Integumentary System
The Integumentary System helps regulate body temperature, protect the body, eliminate waste, make vitamin D, and detect sensations. Two organs in the system are the skin and hair. Dermatologists specialize in the treatment and study of the hair, skin, and nails.
The Skin and Hair
The skin is an external organ covering the body that consists of a superficial, thinner epidermis. Hair is a threadlike structure, produced by hair follicles, that develops in the dermis, covering most of the body.
Psoriasis is chronic inflammatory skin disease that can be initiated by certain environmental triggers. It is not contagious, but causes plaques of scaling, thickening skin. The dry skin flakes are produced by rapid cell growth caused by an immune system abnormality and commonly affects the scalp, elbows, and knees.
Eczema is a medical condition that causes the skin to become inflamed and irritated. The most common type is called atopic dermatitis and symptoms are definite, including a rash and itching in the area. the exact cause is unknown, but is thought to be triggered by an irritant to the immune system. There is no cure, but evaluation and elimination of triggers and irritants is said to be helpful in clearing flare-ups.
The Digestive System
The Digestive System achieves physical and chemical breakdown of food, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates solid waste. Organs in the Digestive System include the mouth and the stomach. Gastroenterologists are dedicated to the management and treatment of diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract. They perform different procedures such as colonoscopy and endoscopy, and are trained to treat diseases such as hepatitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and colon/rectal cancer.
The Mouth and Stomach
The oral cavity (mouth) is formed by the cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tongue. Mechanical digestion in the mouth results from chewing, which is also known as mastication. It is the first part of digestion. The stomach is an enlargement of the GI tract and its superior part is connected to the esophagus. It is divided into four parts: cardia, fundus, body, and pylorus. The stomach mixes and digests food.
Disease: Peptic Ulcer Disease
Pepetic Ulcer Disease is a craterlike lesion in a membrane exposed to acidic gastric juice in the GI tract. Three causes are the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hypersecretion of HCI. Sypmtoms include pain in the upper abdomin, and hunger after meals.
Disorder: Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon. It is one of the deadliest cancers, with leading causes of high alcohol intake and diets high in animal fat and protein. Screening for colorectal cancer includes blood testing in the feces, digital rectal examination, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and barium enema. Signs include diarrhea, constipation, cramping, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.
The Endocrine System
The endocrine system regulates body activities through hormones transported by the blood to various target organs. Endocrinologists are physicians who diagnose diseases related to the glands. They treat hormone imbalances, metabolic disorders, infertility, and menopause.
The Pineal Gland and the Pancreas
The Pineal Gland is a cone-shaped gland located in root of the 3rd ventricle. It produces melatonin, which affects the modulation of wake/sleep patterns. The Pancreas is a soft, oblong organ lying along the greater curvature of the stomach and connected by a duct to the duodenum. It is both a digestive exocrine and an hormone producing endocrine gland that breaks down food and secretes insulin and glucagon.
Diabetes is a condition that involves glucose in the body at an improper production rate, which is due to a lack of insulin, or ineffective use of insulin in the body. Signs of diabetes include frequent urination, excessive thirst, increased hunger, weight loss, and lack of concentration.
Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs. This can cause many of the body's functions to slow or shut down completely, as well as swelling and puffing of facial tissue.
The Lymphatic and Immune System
The Lymphatic system circulates body fluids and helps defend the body against disease-causing agents. It drains interstitial fluid, transports dietary lipids, and protects against invasion. Immunologists specialize in the study and treatment of disease processes that involve the immune system. Depending on the underlying issue, a patient could also be referred to an oncologist for cancer, or an infectious disease specialist for an infection.
The Spleen and Lymph Nodes
The spleen is a large mass of lymphatic tissue between the fundus of the stomach and diaphragm that functions in formation of blood cells during early fetal development. Lymph nodes are oval/bean shaped structures located along lymphatic vessels that produce and store cells that fight infection and disease.
Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic tissues, especially the lymph nodes. The two types of Lymphomas are Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Hodgkin's disease is a painless, nontender enlargement of one or more lymph nodes, in which fever, night sweats, and bone pain may occur. If diagnosed early, HD has a 90% cure rate.
HIV(Human Immunodeficiency virus) is a fragile virus that destroys immune system cells. It has no cure and signs are noticeable immediately following the infection with HIV. Most people experience a brief flu-like sickness with fever, fatigue, rash, headache, joint pain, and a sore throat. Someone who is HIV positive will show antibodies in blood plasma.
Role in Homeostasis
The Lymphatic system contributes to Homeostasis by aiding the urinary system. Lymphatic vessels drain excess interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins from organs of the urinary system. MALT also helps defend against toxins and pathogens that penetrate the body via the urethra.
The Urinary System
The Urinary System produces, stores, and eliminate urine and waste, regulates volume and chemical composition of the blood, maintains the body's mineral balance, and helps regulate red blood cell production. A urologist is a physician who specializes knowledge and skill regarding problems of the male and female urinary tract. Also, a nephrologist is a medical doctor who specializes in kidney care and treating diseases of the kidneys.
The Kidneys and Urinary Bladder
The kidneys regulate blood ionic composition, blood volume, blood pressure, blood pH, stimulate red blood cell production, vitamin D synthesis, and excretes waste. The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ situated in the pelvic cavity and stores urine prior to elimination.
Glomerulonephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney. It is commonly caused by allergic reaction to toxins produced by strept ococcal bacteria. Glomeruli become so inflamed, swollen, and engorged with blood that filtration membranes allow blood cells and plasma protein to enter the filtrate, and urine fills with hematuria and protein.
Disease: Kidney Stones
Kidney Stones are clumps of calcium oxalate that can be found anywhere in the urinary tract. Signs include pain in the back and sides, and blood in the urine. Kidney Stones may be removed through surgical procedures or by passing through the urethra.
Works Cited: Respiratory, Cardiovascular, Reproductive, Nervous, and Muscular
Taylor, Tim. "Respiratory System." <i>InnerBody</i>. Web. 9 Sept. 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Respiratory System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Taylor, T. (n.d.). Cardiovascular System. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Cardiovascular System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Reproductive Systems. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Zimmermann, K. (2012, August 24). Nervous System: Facts, Function & Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). Central and Somatic Nervous Systems. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Zimmermann, K. (2013, February 4). Muscular System: Facts, Functions & Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Muscular System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Works Cited: Skeletal, Integumentary, Digestive, Endocrine, Lymphatic, and Urinary
Zimmermann, K. (2012, August 20). Skeletal System: Facts, Function & Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Skeletal System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Integumentary System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Zimmermann, K. (2012, August 14). Digestive System: Facts, Function & Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Digestive System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Zimmermann, K. (2013, January 22). Endocrine System: Facts, Functions and Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Endocrine System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Zimmermann, K. (2013, February 8). Lymphatic System: Facts, Functions & Diseases. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Lymphatic and Immune System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.
Taylor, T. (n.d.). Urinary System. Retrieved September 9, 2014.
Tortora, G., & Grabowski, S. (2001). The Urinary System. In Introduction to the Human Body (Fifth ed.). John Wiley & Sons.