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Introduction

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Pabs Ceja

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Introduction

Introduction
Current research points to the lack of teaching listening in Second Language Acquisition courses
Levis (2005) account on the importance of intelligibility over native-like pronunciation
Supra/Segmental, Identity
intelligibility has to surface through communication by the L2 speakers and whoever their audience might be (native and/or non-native speakers)
Lit Review Speaking and Pronunciation
Derwin and Rossiter (2002) research points to a shift of attention to other prosodic factors that influence intelligibility, like: stress, intonation, rate, rhythm, and volume
what strategies do learners use, what control do student’s observe they have over their accents, and what problems in pronunciation did students identify as their own?
The results in Derwin and Rossiter’s (2002) address the needs of ESL teachers to “evaluate the overall effectiveness and scope of the pronunciation they provide and to assist their students in developing those strategies that will best enable them to communicate successfully and autonomously in the [L2]-speaking community” (p. 163)
Image by Tom Mooring

Teaching Spanish Voiced Spirant Approximants:
Through a Communicative Language Teaching Approach by Using Listening, Speaking, and Pronunciation Tasks

Pablo Ceja Del Toro


Lit Review on Listening
Lit Review on Listening
Intro Continued
Various studies show the intricate qualities the Spanish voiced spirant approximates receive to get produced and they point to their importance in listening and speaking to account for L2 learners comprehensibility of the Spanish language shows
Such qualities call on teaching the voiced spirant approximants in Spanish do to the degree of difficulty learners have in perceiving and pronouncing them.
Teaching a native-like pronunciation is not necessary, intelligibility is an important goal
Richard (2oo8) suggests a listener is one "who is seen as an active participant in listening, employing strategies to facilitate, monitor, and evaluate his or her listening”
suggests cognitive psychology that employs bottom-up and top-down processes in view of prior knowledge and schema.
metacognitive tasks for listening to help their L2 languages form play which can be instructive to new word forms and organization of their increasing communicative competence.
Literature Review
Lit Review on Listening
“Phonetic segments which are phonologically distinctive in the L2, but not in the learners’ native language are often not correctly recognized and categorized, leading to difficulties in comprehension of spoken L2 utterances” ( Strange and Valerie 2008)
Intro Continued
The next is a literature review of the salient issues for L2 learners in: listening, speaking, and pronunciation, with the goal of guiding the teaching of Spanish’s voiced spirant approximants in this unit plan through a Communicative Language Teaching Approach.
[T]he stops appear after nasals, pauses, and when /ð/ follows a lateral; the approximants appear intervocalically and in all other positions.... The effect of other adjoined consonants on the realization of / β, ð, ɣ / varies widely in different varieties of Spanish... and is generally not treated together with the more widespread core alternations conditioned by preceding pauses, nasals, laterals, and vowels. (Eddington, 2011 p. 2)
Vandergrift and Tafaghodtari (2010) observe that the metacognitive processes of listening instruction provides beginning learners,
in particular
, the necessary knowledge and tools to meaningfully transfer their learning
Metacognition is the involvement of the knowledge of cognitive processes and the competency to orchestrate, regulate, and monitor those processes
(1)Ss entered date and topic in a new page
(2)Ss possibly could brainstorm or relate the vocabulary of the topic within logical possibilities (prediction first as a class, later in groups, and finally on their own);
(3) Ss would listen and checkoff anything they heard from their list as well as comment;
(4) Ss paired up to share the information they received and talk about what possibly they could catch in the next listening;
(5) Ss listened a second time while the teacher checked for comprehension,
(6) a third listening would help verify perception and comprehension,
(7) and lastly the Ss should write a reflection to help them listen better a next time.
Goh (2000) notes that before establishing a listening tasks the students (Ss) should know how to teach themselves to listen by knowing what part/s of listening cause them trouble
Cognitive Framework helped Goh pinpoint where in the three phases (perception, parsing, utilization) listeners had difficulty in comprehending a process.
Prescribes direct and indirect strategies
Lit Review on S/P Cont'd
Bajuniemi (2013) addressess pronunciation through explicit teaching by a non-native spanish speaker and implicit teaching with a native spanish speaker both through the Communicative Approach. Looks at 40 tokens for intervocalic voiced spirant /d/
30 Participants, 1/2 F/M, 5 yr window, ages 17 to late 2o's
Had pre and after recording, and motivation questionaire
Experiment group were allowed 10 minutes of explicit pronunciation of the begining of every class period (10 over 5 weeks)
Control group received communication activities during the beginning 10 minutes
Arguments that teaching explicit pronunciation is a waste of time or does not fit into a communicative classroom thus do not hold, as the benefits to the students are tangible. (p. 49)
Lit Review on S/P Cont'd
Smith reviewed the acquistion of the Spanish voiced sprirant approximants through interlanguage within OT

Interlanguage to be the “intermediate or developing state between the first language and the acquisition of the second language” (p. 55).
Used constraints as a measure to show how the less marked sounds like [b,v] are acquired before the voiced spirant approximant [β] post vocalically in Spanish by English L1 speakers.
UG and markedness
Lit Review on S/P Cont'd
Zampini’s (1994) research confirms Smith’s analysis: L1 transfer shows up in L2 errors of Spanish /bdg/ and English-speaking students improve their Spanish pronounciation of /bdg/ in an informal conversation task instead of in a formal reading
32 Native Eng.Ss, 17 enrolled in 2 sem. intensive Span., 15 in a 4 sem. int. Span. Control group of 5
Informal interview and formal reading tailored (individually taped for ten minutes)
Spanish voiced stops show the effects of negative L1 transfer both in terms of the failure to spirantize /b d g/ and the transfer of English /v/ and /d/ to the developing phonemic inventory of L2 Spanish
both groups of students would exhibit more accurate pronunciation using the informal rather than formal task
Lit Rev on Communicative Language Teaching
Savignon (2010) clearly marks Dell Hymes communicative competence as the “ability to negotiate meaning –to successfully combine a knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse rules in communicative interactions… in academic as well as non-academic settings” (p. 2).

(CLT) is prescribed to make second and foreign language communicative skills effective through interaction initiatives

The students should capture the meaning and authenticity of the language use for learning through: contextualization, focus on the components of organization (grammatic, discourse) with the pragmatic aspects of the language (functional, sociolinguistic, and strategic).
Pedagogical Implications
Teaching an L2 has multiple aspects to it that must be addressed in foreign language class
Combining all of the skills needed seem to point to an overall success intelligibility of the speakers
Understanding the learners need, providing real context for learners to participate should include appropriate models with contextualization
Listening, speaking, and pronunciation tasks will be relevant to the learners motivation
Main Goal and Objectives
Goals
The students should be able to distinguish the spirant voiced approximants [β ð ɣ] from English’s voiced stops [bdg] as well as able to pronounce them in a three week unit through communicative tasks in the unit “The students and University”.

Objectives
Listening: Student will be to utilize metacognitive skills to enable them to approach listening factors
Students will be able to perceptually distinguish the differences between Spanish spirant voiced approximants [β ð ɣ] and English voiced stops [b d g] at intervocalic positions
Speaking: Students will be able to approach communicative situations by negotiating meaning
Students will be able to communicate with a more native-like Spanish spirant voiced approximants.
Pronunciation: Students will be able to acquire pronunciation of the spirant voiced approximants at intervocalic and non-stressed positions.

Lessons
Description
Class of 22 low beginners
Hispanic Learning Institution at CSU, Fresno
L1 learners background is heterogeneous
Ages 18 to 24 predominantly
13 females and 9 males
Possible native speakers included
Different majors (business, nursing, and engineering)
18 week course with focus on fourth week
Learners expected to have L2 experience
Class meets 3 times a week from 8 to 8:50 AM
Online Student Activity Manual (SAMs)
Week 3 Day1
Goal: The students should be able to recall vocabulary on University and Class through the production of simple sentence structures.
Objectives: I. Students will be able to understand general statements and question as well as the distinct vowels of Spanish.
A. Students will demonstrate comprehension of spoken statements by completing directed actions and/or providing correct answers. (metacognitive listening)
B. Students will demonstrate understanding of basic questions by providing correct answers. (Speaking)
C. Students will demonstrate knowledge on the distinct features that correspond to each vowel by drawing a triangle vowel diagram, pointing to the parts of their mouth or maybe even sounding them out.

Week 3 Day 2
Goal: Student should be able to rephrase statements to relate to their personal classroom activities in pair groups.
Objectives: Students will be able to understand general statements and questions as well as linguistic terminology alongside with the voiced stop phonemes
A. Students will demonstrate comprehension of spoken statements by completing directed actions and/or providing correct answers.
B. Students will demonstrate understanding of basic questions by providing correct answers.
C. Students will demonstrate knowledge of linguistic terminology like sonorance and show the sagittal view of the human vocal tract with the parts of the mouth used to produce the voiced stops

Week 3 Day 3
Goal: The students will be able to listen and speak of their daily school routines
Objectives: Students will use basic grammar, including present tense verbs alongside the devoiced stop phonemes.
A. Students will demonstrate knowledge of grammar use through written work and exams.
B. Students will make use grammar knowledge in speaking activities and make inferences of Spanish’s devoiced stops by distinguishing them in listening tasks.

Week 4 Day 1
Goals: The students will showcase pronunciation errors
Objectives: Students will be able to carry on simple conversations in Spanish and be able to discuss the features of the voiced stops phonemes.
A. Students describe instances of their lives in pairs.
B. Student will recollect instances where the voiced stops in intervocalic position stops are mispronounced

week 4 Day 2
Goal: The students schematize life on campus
Objectives: Students will use vocabulary relevant to the themes and topics of the class and discuss the aspirant voiced aproximants
A. Students will engage in Total Physical Response, (TPR,) tasks using new vocabulary in order to demonstrate receptive vocabulary.
B. Students will engage in communicative tasks with peers in order to demonstrate productive vocabulary.
C. Students will practice using the aspirant voiced approximants in intervocalic positions in tasks.

Week 4 Day 3
Goals: The students will be able to summarize a story in a listening task
Objectives: Students will be able to understand a story by explaining it.
A. Students will demonstrate comprehension of spoken statements by completing directed actions and/or providing correct answers.
B. Students will demonstrate understanding of basic questions by providing correct answers
C. Students will be able to distinguish voiced stops versus devoiced stops in the listening tasks
D. Students will utilize the aspirant voiced approximants intervocalically and always when they do not follow a nasal, a stop or a lateral.

Week 5 Day 1
Goal: Students will illustrate ideas from reading passages
Objectives: Students will use past and present tense, as well as reflexive and irregular verbs, while being able to pronounce Spanish voiced approximants
A. Students will demonstrate knowledge of grammar through written work.
B. Students will demonstrate grammar knowledge through speaking activities.
C. Students will be able to pronounce the voiced stops intervocalicly and other places.

Week 5 Day 3
Goal: The students will relate to or differentiate their experience to schools in Spain
Objectives: Students will be able to read and comprehend short passages in Spanish, while at the same time distinguish voiced and devoiced stops.
A. Students will demonstrate sound recognition of the letters of the Spanish alphabet.
B. Students will provide the class with two main points from a passage, demonstrating their understanding of its contents
C. Students will be able to perceive and speak the aspirant voiced approximants

REFERENCES
Zampini, M. L. (1997). L2 Spanish spirantization, prosodic domains and interlanguage rules. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LANGUAGE DISORDERS, 16, 209-234.
Smith, M. (2010). Interlanguage within Optimality Theory: The Acquisition of Spanish Voiced Stop Spirantization. Working Papers of the Linguistics Circle, 15, 55-60.
Shively, R. L. (2008). L2 ACQUISITION OF [β],[δ], AND [γ] IN SPANISH: IMPACT OF EXPERIENCE, LINGUISTIC ENVIRONMENT AND LEARNER VARIABLES. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 27(2).
Richards, J. C. (2008). Teaching listening and speaking. Cambridge University Press.
Goh, C.C.M. (2000). A cognitive perspective on language learners’ listening comprehension problems. System, 28, 55-75.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J. (2002). ESL Learners' perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30, 155-166.
Bajuniemi, A. (2013). Teaching Intervention on the Pronunciation of Spanish Intervocalic/d.
Alvord, S. M., & Christiansen, D. E. (2012). Factors Influencing the Acquisition of Spanish Voiced Stop Spirantization during an Extended Stay Abroad. Studies in Hispanic & Lusophone Linguistics, 5(2).
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