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Transcript of Reciprocal Teaching
To scaffold the four strategies by modeling, guiding, and applying the strategies while reading
To guide students become metacognitive and reflective in their strategy use
To help students monitor their reading comprehension using the four strategies
To use the social nature of learning to improve and scaffold reading comprehension
To strengthen instruction in a variety of classroom settings: whole-group sessions, guided reading groups, and literature circles Reciprocal Teaching complements core reading instruction, however, it is NOT comprehensive enough to stand alone as a method for teaching reading comprehension. Reciprocal Teaching was designed to focus on just four important strategies. See below the eight strategies necessary for teaching students to understand what they read:
1. Previewing 2. Self-questioning
3. Making connections 4. Visualizing
5. Knowing how words work 6. Monitoring
7. Summarizing 8. Evaluating Reciprocal Teaching in Different Classroom Settings
Whole-class session: Initially introduce the strategies to the entire class. Continually model using think-alouds and provide opportunities for paired or cooperative type learning activities.
Guided reading groups: Reinforcement during small group-setting. Deepen the students' understanding of the strategies. Provide extra support and intervention to struggling students.
Literature circles: Release responsibility to students and allow them to run their groups independently. Prediction goes beyond guessing and involves previewing the text to anticipate what might happen next. Students need to learn the academic language to use when making a prediction. They also need to learn how predicting changes from reading a fiction text to reading a nonfiction piece.
Refer to page table 3 on page 18 (has potential to become an anchor chart!) Students are taught that good readers ask questions while they read (before, during and after). At first students will ask unimportant questions. As you continue to model question formulation, instruct students how to ask harder, more interesting questions. In order to do this, students become more aware of the text's important ideas. They automatically increase their reading comprehension while trying to generate better questions. Students love asking different types of questions! (Wonders, Quiz Questions and Thinking Questions)
ention technique used by Ms. Pazwoski) Clarifying or monitoring comprehension includes more than just figuring out difficult words in a text. It includes keeping track of one's comprehension of the text and knowing fix-up strategies to maintaining meaning during reading. Clarifying helps students monitor their own comprehension as they identifying problems they are having in comprehending portions of text or figuring out difficult words. It's a complex strategy that involves two basic steps:
(1) identifying or admitting that one is stuck on a word or idea, and then
(2) figuring out how to remedy the situation. Refer to page 21 for clarifying prompts.
You must also model when to stop to clarify an idea.
(Use the Clarifying bookmark for this strategy) Teaching to summarize improves overall comprehension. Reciprocal teaching provides students many opportunities to exercise their summarizing muscle as they formulate frequent verbal summaries throughout the reading of a text.
It isn't recommended to ask students to summarize longer pieces of text before they can master summarizing shorter pieces. It is important to show how summarizing a non-fiction piece is different from summarizing a fiction piece. Limiting the amount of words they can use for their summary really helps them to narrow their information. Lower Grades Higher
Grades Students running
their groups Read-Alouds (47) Fab Four Gestures (52 -54)
Four Door Charts (48 / 112) Posters (56)
Fab Four Mat (123) Guided Reading Coaching Strategy (143)
Fab Four and Props (48-50 Fab Four Dial (177)
Mentor Texts (51) Fab Four Bookmark (74)
Role Sheet Training for Students(210) Clarifying Bookmark (words / ideas)
Reciprocal Teaching Spinner (230) Rubrics (254/255
Literature Discussion Sheet (205) Self-Assessment Forms (204 / 257)
Fab Four Charts (160-163) Reciprocal Teaching Observation Sheet (203)
Guided reading Observation Chart (168) Qs and Cs Record Sheets (173)
Guided Reading Lesson Plan Guide(153 - 154) Assessment "How is your Buddy doing?" (263 264) ACTIVITY Chapter 3 Discusses how to sprinkle whole group instruction with different ways to engage and actively involve all students using interactive, partners or table team activities such as:
Four Door Chart
Name That Strategy!
Pass the Mat
Four Fab Mat Chapter 2 will specifically discuss ideas for introducing your class to reciprocal teaching using read-alouds, mentor text, characters and props, and hand motions or gestures for each of the strategies.
Multiple strategy instruction: you should quickly teach or review each of the strategies and jump as quickly as possible into using all four . You can always back up and teach a focused minilesson on one of the strategies to strengthen its use if need be. Once you have introduced reciprocal teaching to your class, select a consistent time and setting in which to use it and do so at least twice week Discusses how to sprinkle whole group instruction with different ways to engage and actively involve all students using interactive, partners or table team activities such as: Four Door Chart, Name That Strategy!, Pass the Mat, Four Fab Mat. Chapter 3: Chapter 4:
Introduces reciprocal teaching in guided reading groups. This format allows for further scaffolding. I takes several months for students to become experts using the strategies.
Reciprocal teaching provides flexibility for group configurations:
Intervention for struggling readers
Ability level Assessments procedures include: Observing, coaching individual students, reflecting on strategy use, and collecting brief written responses from students for a chart or discussion purposes.
Refer to the "Guided Reading Coaching Strategy, Protocol, and Prompts" and the "Observation Chart" to assess reciprocal teaching during guided reading lessons.
You will also find a lesson plan guide (154) and a variety of graphic organizers to use during small group instruction for both, fiction and non fiction texts. Chapter 5: Literature Circles
Students must be trained in three main areas before they participate in this setting:
The 4 strategies
Small-group social skills
Literature circle procedures The release of more responsibility allows students to use a highly cooperative peer setting that will help students become metacognnitive and independent in their use of strategies. Reciprocal Teaching At School Number Five:
Some classes are already implementing reciprocal teaching during whole group and small group.
Try reciprocal teaching during whole group instruction this month in any of the content areas!
Make connections between the FAB 4 and ACHIEVE.
Invite the Principal and/or the Literacy Coach (me!!!) to observe or co-teach the lesson with you!
Make use of all of the materials you will be taking to your classrooms right away!
Read the book! It is filled with wonderful ideas! Spotted in our classrooms: hola