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Energy for Physical Activity
Transcript of Energy for Physical Activity
any type of physical movement, but also for all metabolic activities at the cellular level! ATP-CP system Anaerobic
Duration: ~10seconds (shortest lasting energy system)
Least complex energy system
Predominant in Maximal intenstiy exercise (ie. 95% + Max. H.R.)
Peak power ~3-4 seconds
Fuel= Creating phosphate (CP) - chemical fuel
By products: inorganic phosphates, ADP) How it works...
CP molecule breaks down releasing energy
The free phosphate joins to an ADP molecule to form ATP
ATP breaks bond between 2nd & 3rd Phosphate, to release energy and make a ADP molecule Note:
ATP -CP system utilises ATP stores in muscles.
ATP stores last ~1-2 seconds, from there; Creatine phosphate will continue to break down for ATP resynthesis until CP stores deplete! Sporting examples where ATP-CP system is dominant:
energy system Anaerobic
Fast rate (not as fast as ATP-CP system)
Yelid: more than ATP-CP system
Predominant in from ~10seconds to ~75seconds
High intensity exercise (ie. 85%+ Max H.R)
Also used predominantly for burst of high intensity exercise when CP stores haven't restored
If max O2 uptake is less than what is required in an exercise bout, ATP resynthesis will be shared with aerobic energy system
Peak power: ~5-15seconds
Fuel: Glycogen - food fuel
By products: lactic acid ( lactate & H+ ions), ADP) How it works... Glycogen stored in mucles is converted to glucose, which is then converted to Pyruvic acid, releasing energy to resynthesis ATP for muscular contraction. Due to the absence of oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which is made up of lactate and Hydrogen ions.
It is the H+ ions that cause muscle fatigue Aerobic energy
Slowest rate of the energy systems
Highest yeild of the energy systems
Predominant from 75+ seconds during submaximal intensity exercise (ie. <80% max HR) and also during rest
Peak power: 1-1.5 minutes
By products: H2O, heat, CO2
Fuels: at rest: FFA's & carbohydates
at submaximal intensity:
Carbohydrates, fats (when glycogen stores are deplenished), proteins (under extreme condtions when CHO's and FFA's are depleted ie starvation, ultra-marathon).
at max intensity (short duration): carbohydrates Aerobic Glycolysis Aerobic Lipolysis How it works...
Glycogen stored in th muscle is converted to glucose
Glucose is then converted to pyruvic acid but due to the presence of O2, ACetyl conenzyme A is produced. Enegry is released during this conversion to resynthesis ATP for muscle contraction.
Acetyl conenzyme A then goes through the Krebs cycle to be broken down to CO2 and Hydrogen. Energy is released during Acetyl coenzyme A entering the Krebs cycle.
Next, the H+ions produced in the Krebs cycle are transported to the electron transport chain to combine with O2 to form water. Energy is also released in the transition to the E.T.C. from the Krebs cycle. How it works...
Fats are broken down into glycerol and FFA's
by Beta oxidation FFA's are broken down in the mitochondia to form Acetyl coenzyme A and oxygen.
The Acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle which releases energy for ATP resynthesis.
Hydrogen ions formed in the krebs cycle enter the electron transport chain and release energy for ATP resynthesis for muscular contraction. Interplay of the
energy systems Interplay of the energy systems means how the energy systems work together to contribute to ATP resynthesis.
When any exercise begins, all three energy systems are contributing to ATP production right from the start, but one energy system will always be the predominant energy system.
The energy system that is the predominant energy supplier depends on two key factors of ATP demand:
1) Exercise duration: How long the activity lasts for.
2) Exercise intensity: How hard the exercise is performed Here we can see how all 3 systems work together to resythesis ATP.
ATP production at rest: Due to the unlimited amount of O2 supply during rest, the aerobic system predominantly produces energy. Two thirds of this energy is provided by the breakdown of fats, via lipolysis. The remaining third produced by anaerobic glycolysis. Glycaemic index (GI) Ranking system for carbohydrates on a scale of 0 - 100.
Rankings corrispond to the extent to which they increase blood-glucose levels.
High GI: >70. Rapidly digested & absorbed. eg sugar, white rice, watermelon, jelly beans, sports drinks.
Low GI: <55. Slowly digested & absorbed. Proven health benefits. eg. Most fruit and vegetables, pasta, milk, yoghurt. ATP molecule triphosphate 'tail' adenosine high energy bond ALL 3 energy systems function to resynthesis ATP from ADP+Pi. This biochemical process is called PHOSPHIRYLATION:
Where energy adds the phosphate to the ADP molcule to form ATP REMEMBER:
The energy needed to join Pi to ADP is obtained from the breakdown of energy fuels! Creatine Phosphate (CP) High energy chemical fuel
CP stores in mucles (limited), the rest is replenished by the ATP-CP system High energy bond- breaks to release energy for the APT-CP system aka: lactic acid system, fast glycolysis aka: oxidative system aka: phosphate energy system, phosphocreatine system, phosphagen system aka: slow glycolysis
Fast resysthesis of ATP
No O2 required
3X ATP production of ATP-CP system Disadvantages:
By product of H+ ions- cause fatigue
Less ATP production than aerobic system Advantages:
Highest yeild of ATP
Indefinate energy suppier
No toxic by-products
Allows lactic acid to be oxidised to become non-toxic Disadvantages
Slowest ATP resythesis
Fats have large O2 demand Advantages
Immediate ATP resynthesis
Used for maximal intensity exercise (95%+ max HR) Disadvantages:
Lowest yeild of ATP
Limited CP muscle stores tour de france
marathon Nutri grain iron man triathlon netball - leading out for ball AFL - running to kick for goal Tennis -
running to reach ball high jump
javelin Golf drive shot put 100m sprint Energy
Physical Activity Adenosine
(break down of ATP) The breakdown of a high energy bond between Phosphates in an ATP molecule to produce ADP is what releases the energy required
Proteins Fats/ Triglycerides Converted to AMINO ACIDS as food fuel
Stored as MUSCLES within the body Nuts Full cream milk Butter/margarine Cheese
Icecream Converted to FREE FATTY ACIDS (FFA's) as a food fuel
Stored as ADIPOSE TISSUE around body 20-25% >66% 15% 10% Most concentrated fuel in terms of energy
Predominantly used for energy production at rest as the complexity for the chemical breakdown of fats makes energy release too slow for the ATP demands for exercise, unless CHO stores deplete. (excess protein - converted to fats and stored in adipose tissue) ~15% 5% 0% 0% % of Daily food intake % of use at rest % of use at
sub-maximal/prolonged % of use at maximal % of Daily food intake
% of use at rest % of use at
maximal % of use at
sub-maximal/prolonged Cheese Fish Lean meat Seafood
Poultry Grains, seeds,
lentils & legumes We eat food to obtain energy
Energy obtained is used to make ATP in conjuction with ADP+Pi Carbohydrates Bread Vegetables
Fruit Pasta Cereals
Rice Converted to GLUCOSE as food fuel
Stored as GLYCOGEN in muscles & liver Fuel source for both aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis % of Daily food intake % of use at rest % of use at
sub-maximal/prolonged % of use at maximal 55-65% 33% 80% 90% Another way of looking at it: