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Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Social Development
Transcript of Erik Erikson's 8 Stages of Social Development
Trust VS Mistrust
Industry VS Inferiority
Intimacy VS Isolation
Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development
First Day of School
Our lifetime of Milestones
Psychologists have studied the relationships between milestones of
They have developed theories about how personalities are shaped.
Sigmund Freud wrote that an individual's personality development depends on the resolution of conflicts between childhood subconscious sexual urges and the demands of society.
Human Development includes five distinct stages!
Refined and explained Freud's theories into 8 stages of development.
In Grammar school, Erikson was teased for being Jewish.
Erikson felt uncomfortable as a German and as a Jewish boy.
This feeling was the basis for his notion of an "Identity Crisis" which he would later define when he became a psychologist.
Met Anna Freud (Psychoanalyst daughter of Sigmund Freud)
Erikson studied child psychology with Anna in Vienna.
Moved to the United States where he taught at Harvard and Yale
Erikson wrote that each stage of a person's life is characterized by a different
that must be resolved before the person can
progress to the next stage.
The success of each stage depends on how well the previous crisis was resolved.
If a person does not resolve a crisis, it will continue to affect a person's development through life.
Birth - 18 Months
From warm and responsive care, infants gain a sense of trust.
Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long got comfort or are handled too harshly.
They feel confident and optimistic that the world is a good and safe place.
These babies are insecure and mistrustful.
Autonomy VS Shame & Doubt
18 Months - 3 Years
Children now want to choose and decide for themselves.
Shame & Doubt
Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable choice.
This becomes evident when children begin saying "NO" and throwing tantrums.
Would you like to wear the blue shirt or the red shirt today?
When parents are over-controlling and do not allow reasonable choice...
Children do not learn to be independent and begin to doubt their ability to make good choices.
When children do make choices on their own, parents must not shame them for making a "wrong" choice.
Initiative VS Guilt
Through make-believe play, the healthy child learns...
Immobilized by guilt, the child is...
1. To imagine and to broaden his/her skills.
2. To cooperate with others
3. To lead as well as to follow
2. Hangs on the fringes of social groups
3. Continues to depend on adults
4. Is restricted both in the development of play skills and imagination.
At school, children develop the capacity to work and cooperate with others.
Inferiority develops when negative experiences lead to feelings of incompetence.
Industry develops when children have successful experiences in...
Identity VS Role Confusion
The adolescent tries to answer the questions, "Who am I? What is my place in society?"
The negative outcome is confusion about future adult roles.
Self-chosen values and vocational goals lead to a lasting personal identity.
Young people are working on establishing intimate ties to others.
Because of earlier disappointments, some individuals cannot form close relationships with others and remain isolated.
The successful adult can experience
, which makes things possible like...
Generativity VS Self-Absorption
giving back to the next generation.
The person who fails in these areas feels an absence of meaningful accomplishment.
Caring for other people
Meaningful & Productive Work
Integrity VS Despair
Individuals reflect on the kind of person they have been.
Dissatisfied elder people are fearful of death.
Integrity results from feeling that like was worth living as it happened.
More on Freud in Child Development Two...