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Transcript of Reflective Practice
Kolb DA (1984) Experiential Learning: experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey Prentice Hall.
Moon J (2004) A Handbook of Reflective and Experiential Learning: theory and practice. London Routledge Falmer
Palmer AM, Burns S& Bulman C (1994) Rrflective Practice in Nursing: the growth of the professional practitioner. Oxford Blackwell Science
Scaife J (2010) Supervising the reflective Practitioner: an essential guide to theory and practice. London Routledge
Schőn DA (1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco Jossey Bass.
Thompson S& Thompson N (2008) The Critically Reflective Practitioner. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan References and Bibliography Boud D, Keogh R& Walker I edit (1985) Reflection: Turning Experience into Learning. London Kogan Page
Cottrell S. (2005) Critical Thinking Skills. Basingstoke. Palgrave Macmillan
Edwards SL (1998) Critical thinking and analysis: a model for writing assignments. BJN 7(3) 1590166
Gibbs G (1988) Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. London FEU
Driscoll JJ (1994) Reflective Practice for Practise- a framework of structured reflection for clinical areas. Senior Nurse 14 (1) 47-50
Ghaye A & Ghaye K (1998) Teaching and Learning through Critical Reflective Practice. London Fulton Publishers
Johns C (1995) The value of reflective practice for Nursing. JCN 4, 23030 Matter of choice
Adoption of a reflective approach
Organisational structure which inhibits rather than encourages reflection
Resistance to change
Lack of time
Past negative experiences/ presumptions
Lack of self awareness/ intervening skills
Negative factors which impede learning Barriers
Returning to the situation
Understanding the context
Modifying future outcomes Driscoll’s model of reflection
( 1994) Gibbs reflective cycle
( 1998) In Action:
Practising, influences decisions and care at that moment,
Promotes skilled and flexible responses of the expert practitioner
After the event, views different interventions, adds knowledge
Promotes development of professional skills and knowledge Reflecting in and on Action
(Schőn 1987) Critical Analysis (Edwards 1998)
Re-evaluation (Boud 1985)
Reflection in and On Action (Schőn 1987)
Johns 1995 Models Misunderstanding of what is meant by criticism
Over estimating personal reasoning abilities
Lack of methods, strategies, practice
Reluctance to critique experts
Mistaking information for understanding
Insufficient focus and attention to detail Barriers to Critical Thinking
(Cottrell 2005) Critical Thinking “An investigation whose purpose is to explore a situation, phenomenon, question, or problem to arrive at a hypothesis or conclusion about it that integrates all available information and that can be therefore be convincingly justified” Kurfiss 1988 Kolb’s Learning Cycle (1984) Enhance your self awareness
Develop creative answers to difficulties
Enhance your problem solving skills
Enhance your ability to evaluate
Enhance your ability to action plan for success
Make you an effective manager What can reflective practice do for me?
Reflection then includes hard systematic thinking and a soft initiative insight, leading to a plan of action based on critical evaluation of all the available evidence.
Don’t just think about what went wrong/well and why – also plan to improve skills if necessary, or to use those skills in future events
Develops awareness of own assumptions
Draws on research and theory
Provides guidance and framework for practice Reflection To enable professional development
The ‘knowledge’ economy
Continuous professional development
To maintain quality
Reflecting on what went wrong and why = improvement
Reflecting on what went well and why = good practice Why should you be reflective practitioners?
‘ The art of writing things down helps you to clarify your thoughts and emotions, to work out strategies, and to focus on your development and progress…’
(Cottrell, 2001 p67)
Taking the opportunity to think about the work you are doing, as you do it, or after you have done it.
‘… looking back on an experience and making sense of it to identify what to do in the future.’
(Drew and Bingham, 2001 p221)
‘…do something, think about it what you did, come to conclusions about what you did and plan to try again.’
(Kolb 1984) What is Reflective Practice? Reflection “…reflection in the context of learning is a generic term for those intellectual and affective activities in which individuals engage to explore their experiences in order to lead to new understandings and appreciations” Reflection on Practice (Ghayle 1998) A 'reflective practitioner' is someone who does something and is automatically reflective
Reviews what happened and asks 'why?', 'how?’, ‘where?’, 'what?'
What skills can you take forward/ need to improve/develop?
How will I do this?
The best practitioners are constantly learning, evaluating and refining their practice, even after years of experience.
The next stage is to apply what you have learned from one situation to the next Assessment Reflective Practice Kris Backwell
Nursing Teacher GCIT Methods of Reflection Narrative First person
Links personal and professional development
Can be shared to allow for deeper reflection and comparison Critical Incident What was the situation
Reflection on the situation Boud 1985