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Seerah Timeline of the Prophet Muhammad (saw)

AlHuda Institute Canada, TQE5, Seerah Assignment 1 & 2
by

Shahnoor Durrani

on 22 October 2014

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Transcript of Seerah Timeline of the Prophet Muhammad (saw)

The Prophet(saw) Is Now In The Care Of His Uncle Abu Talib
When the Prophet (saw) is Twelve Years Old
The battle of Fijar takes place. The Prophet (saw)'s role was to pick up arrows and hand them to his uncles
At the Age of Twenty
Timeline Of
The Seerah Of
Prophet

by: Shahnoor Durrani
group Aisha TQE-5

Due to the continuous persecution of the Muslims another group of immigrants was sent to Abyssinia. This time eighty-two or eighty-three men and eighteen women migrated.
Muhammad (saw) makes his living tending
goats for Banu Sa'd
The Prophet (saw) journeys on business for Khadeeja bint Khuwaylid
The Prophet Muhammad (saw) Marries Khadeeja (ra)
When the Prophet (saw) was twenty-five or forty
Rebuilding the Kaaba and the Dispute Over the Black Stone
At the age of thirty-five
The First Revelation
At the age of forty
Secret Propagation of Islam
The First Three Years of Prophethood
Warning From Atop Mount Safa
Persecution of the Believers and of the Prophet (saw)
In the Early Phase of Islam
Dar Al-Arqam
Dar Al-Arqam- the house of Arqam bin Abi Al-Arqam - was the center for prayer, preaching, education and training of the believers
The First Migration to Abyssinia
Fifth Year of Prophethood, Rajab
The Mushrikeen Prostrate With the Muslims
Two Months After the Migration to Abyissinia
The Immigrants Return From Abyssinia
A rumor had reached the immigrants in Abyssinia that the Quraish had accepted Islam becuase of their prostration at the end of Surah Najm. They returned only to find the situation the same
571 C.E.
The Prophet(saw) Is Born
in The Year of the Elephant
The Prophet (saw) Is In The Care Of Haleema Sa'diya
Until the Age of Four
The Prophet (saw)'s Chest is Opened
The Prophet(saw) Spends Time With His Mother Amina
From the Age of Four to Six
The Prophet(saw) Is In The Care Of His Loving Grandfather Abdul Muttalib
From the Age of Six to the Age of Eight Years, Two Months and Ten Days
The Prophet (saw) was born on the ninth of Rabi ul Awwal, in the Year of the Elephant
At the Age of Four or Five
On the way back from the journey to Yathrib, Amina died at Abwa and Abdul Muttalib brought Muhammad (saw) back to Makkah.
He (saw) accompanied Abu Talib on a trade journey to Syria, on the way they met Buhaira the monk who recognized the Prophet (saw) and sends him back to Medina
After the battle of Fijar the Prophet (saw) was present in the Hilf al Fudool- a pact in which the five tribe leaders agreed to stand up for anyone who suffered injustice
At the Age of Twenty Five
References
The Sealed Nectar, Sufi-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri
When The Moon Split, Sufi-ur-Rahman Mubarakpuri
Seerah class notes
Due to a flood which had damaged the Kaaba, the Kaaba was being rebuilt. The job of the Messenger of Allah (saw) was to carry stones
August 10, 610 C.E.
Gibreel (as) came to the Prophet (saw) while he was meditating in the Cave of Hira. Gibreel (as) grasped the Prophet (saw)'s neck and told him to read.
The first three years of prophethood were mainly focused on 'one to one dawah'
Third Year of Prophethood
Open Propagation of Islam
From now the Prophet (saw) and the believers were commanded to propagate Islam openly
The Prophet (saw) climbed up to mt.Safa and called all his kinsmen by their names
lesson: it is wisdom to talk to people at their level
A very difficult time for the Prophet (saw) and the believers as they were being punished severely, even people of high status such as Abu Bakr (ra).
Twelve men and four women make a journey to Abyssinia to save themselves from the persecution in Makkah
The Prophet (saw) recited the verses of Surah Najm to a large number of Quraish. When he reached the end of the Surah the Prophet (saw) prostrated and alond with him so did all of the Quraysh, even Umayya bin Khalaf who took a handful of dust and rubbed it on his forehead saying "this is enough for me"
The Prophet (saw) Accompanies Abu Talib to Syria
The Battle of Fijjar
Hilf al-Fudool
Seventh Year of Prophethood to the Tenth Year of Prophethood
Tenth Year of Prophethood
Hamzah Bin Abdul Muttalib and Umar Bin Al-Khattab (ra) Accept Islam
The Moon Splits In Half
Journey To Ta'if
Rajab, Tenth Year of Prophethood
The Second Migration to Abyssinia
The Quraish Try To Get The Emigrants Back
The Quraish sent Amr bin al-Aas and Abdullah bin Rabi'a to bring the emmigrants back, however they failed in this attempt.
Total Boycott
The Mushrikeen had decided to put a total boycott on the tribes of Banu Hashim and Banu Abdul Muttalib (muslims and non-muslims.) The Muslims were forced out of Makkah into Sha'ib Abi Talib, they were reduced to eating leaves and roots.
Three Years Later the Boycott Ended
The Year Of Sorrow
Abu Talib dies and two months three days later Khadeejah (ra) passes away
In Shawwal
The Prophet (saw) Marries Sauda bint Zama (ra)
A Year Later In Shawwal
The Prophet (saw) Marries Aisha bint Abu Bakr (ra)
Aisha (ra) was married to the Prophet (saw) when she was six, and she was taken as a bride when she was nine
Now the Prophet (saw) was taking the message of Islam to neighbouring tribes. The Prophet (saw) made his journey to Taif on foot, thirty miles from Makkah with his freed slave Zayd bin Haritha (ra).
The reply of the people was that of hostility, children and slaves were sent after him throwing stones until even the feet of the Prophet (saw) were bleeding. The Prophet (saw) took shelter in an orchard belonging to Utbah and She'ba the sons of Rabi'a. At this point he (saw) made the Du'a Al-Mustad'afeen
The Muslims Migrate to Madinah
The Second Pledge of Aqabah
The Thirteenth Year of Prophethood
The Quraish were shown a sign by Allah (swt) which was the splitting of the moon, this happened right in front of them yet they disbelieved in it.
First, Fifth, Tenth, Twelfth or Thirteenth Year of Prophethood
The Night Journey and Ascension
Isra' refers to the night journey from Masjid al-Haram to Masjid al-Aqsa, and Mairaj refers to the ascension to the heavens.
On this journey the Prophet (saw) journeyed to Jerusalem on a Buraq, there he led the other prophets in prayer. From there he (saw) journeyed to the heavens meeting the Prophets at different levels. It was here where the muslims were given the ordinance of Salah.
Six Pilgrims from Yathrib
In the Eleventh Year of Prophethood
Six pilgrims had come from Yathrib, in Mina they met the Prophet (saw) and he called them to Islam; they accepted and promised that they would spread the message of Islam to their people and they would return the next year.
The First Pledge of Aqabah
Five of the six people returned the next year with seven others. Here they had taken a pledge- it was known as the First Pledge of Aqabah
The Next Year
Many pilgrims came from Yathrib (Muslims and Pagans), in order to meet with the Prophet (saw) and to invite him to Yathrib. Seventy three Muslims went out to Aqabah including two women to make a covenant of their loyalty to the Prophet (saw).
Now the Muslims had somewhere to go to most of them migrated to Madinah, most of the Muslims migrated secretly while Umar bin al-Khattab migrated in full view of the Quraish. The immigrants at Abyssinia had also migrated to Madinah. The Muslims who were not able to migrate were still in Makkah, and the Prophet (saw) who was waiting for the command of Allah.
It was a custom of town Arabs to send their children to beduin (desert) Arabs so they would grow strong in the harsh desert climate
One day the Angel Gibreel came to the Prophet (saw), made him lie down opened his chest, and took out a lump of flesh saying it was the part of Satan in him. He then cleaned his heart with ZamZam water and returned it in his chest.
At the Age of Eight
upon the death of his grandfather...
The Counsel at Dar an-Nadwa and the Plot to Kill the Prophet(saw)
Due to the migration of the Muslims to Yathrib, the Quraish feared the power of the Muslims who had made their base in Yathrib, and the leaving of the Prophet (saw). At this counsel the Quraish were deciding how to handle the situation, Iblees was also present here in the form of Shaikh Jaleel of Najd. They had concluded that they would appoint young men form each tribe to kill the Prophet (saw).

The Prophet (saw) is Given Permission to Migrate
One day the angel Gibreel came to the Prophet (saw) giving him permission to migrate, he was told the exact time he should leave home, the plot of the mushrikeen and the that he should not sleep in his bed that night.
The Migration of The Prophet (saw)
The Prophet (saw) Arrives in Qubaa
Enterance in Medina
Brotherhood is Established Between the Muhajireen and Ansar
Covenants Are Made With the Other Communities in Medina
Military Expeditions- Sarriya and Ghazawaat
The New Qibla
The Battle of Badr
Expedition Against Banu Qaynuqa
Ka'b Bin Ashraf is Killed
The Battle of Uhud
The Incident of Raji'
The Tragedy at Bir Ma'una
Expedition Againt Banu Nadir
The Battle of the Trench
Treachery of Banu Quraydha and the Battle of Banu Quraydha
Expedition of Banu Mustaliq
The Incident of the Slander Against Aisha (ra)
The Muslims Set Out for Umrah
The Treaty of Hudaibiyya
The Prophet (saw) Sends Letters To The Various Monarchs
The Conquest of Khaybar
The Muslims Finally Perform Umrah
The Conquest of Makkah
The Battle of Hunayn
The Battle of Ta`if
Expedition to Tabuk
The Year of Delegations
The Farewell Pilgrimage
Abu Bakr (ra) Performs Hajj
The Bara'ah is Declared
The Death of the Prophet (saw)
The Prophet (saw) Leaves Home
The Mushrikeen were not successful in their attempt to assassinate the Prophet (saw), and with the help of Allah (swt) the Prophet (saw) had left unnoticed while reciting the following verse of Surah Yaseen:
The Messenger of Allah (saw) and Abu Bakr (ra) would spend three nights in Mount Thawr, then from there journey to Medina with the guide they had hired. The son of Abu Bakr- Abdullah would spend the night nearby and inform them of the events in Makkah. The Quraish had placed a reward for the Phet (saw)- 100 camels, if he was brought dead or alive.
Their time in the cave is described in the Quran in Surah Tawba:
The Journey to Medina
Abdullah bin Urayqat Laythi- the guide hired by the Prophet (saw) had arrived at Mount Thawr and they had departed for Yathrib. The next day they arrived at the tent of Umm Ma'bad in Qadid where they were offered hospitality. When they left Qadid a man by the name Suraqa bin Malik had spotted the Prophet (saw) and intended to capture the Prophet (saw) for the ransom that was on his head, however he was unable to do so and eventually he had surrendered.
The Prophet (saw) finally arrived at the outskirts of Yathrib(- now known as Medina) at a place called Qubaa. The People of the city had been waiting for the Prophet (saw)'s arrival and would wait for him at Hira each day. When he (saw) arrived the first thing he did was sit in silence. He (saw) had stayed there for four day and in this time he layed the foundation of the Qubaa Mosque.
After praying th jumu'a prayer in Qubaa the Prophet (saw) left for Madinah. Crowds of men, women and children had gathered around to greet the Prophet (saw) and offer him hospitality. The Prophet (saw) had stayed with Abu Ayyub Ansari who had taken the saddle of the Prophet's camel with him.
The Prophet's Mosque had been built where the she-camel of the Prophet (saw) first knelted. The land belonged to two orphans and RasulAllah (saw) had bought the land.
One of the first things that RasulAllah (saw) did upon arriving in Medina was establishing bonds between the 45 Muhajireen and the Ansar. Each Muhajir was assigned to a family of Ansar.
Upon arriving in Medina the Prophet (saw) also established the Islamic Community, by making treating with the coexisting communities in Medina- the Jews and the polytheists.
Now that the Muslims had came to Medina and were in a position to fight they were given the permission -or rather the command- to do so.
Upon arriving in Medina along with establishing the Masjid, the brotherhood between Muhajireen and Ansar and the treaties was that he (saw) established the Muslim Army. The Muslims were organized into cavalry units- called
Sarriya
. The Expeditions in which the Prophet (saw) took place in are called
Ghazawaat
.
Previously the Qibla for the Muslims had been Bayt al Maqdis in Jeruselem. The commsand for the change of the Qibla was long awaited by the Prophet (saw) the Muslims. The command is in Surah Baqarah:
The true believers had rejoiced over this, however the hypocrites could not accept it, and some had left the fold of Islam
This was the first decisive battle between the Muslims and the Quraish. The Muslims with an army of 313 men marched out with the Prophet (saw) to intercept a caravan from Makkah. The caravan was led by Abu Sufyan who had called for reinforcement from Makkah. The Quraish gathered an army of 1300 men. The two armies met at Badr on Friday the 17'th of Ramadan in the second year after migration. This day came to be known as the Day of Distinction, because a clear line between truth and falsehood had been drawn.
The help of Allah (swt) came to the Muslims through 1000 angels fighting alongside them.
Results of the Battle:
The Muslims had won the battle; 70 Mushrikeens were killed and 70 had been taken captive. From the Muslims, 6 Muhajireen and 8 Ansar had gained martyrdom. Of the Mushrikeen Abu Jahl- a staunch opposer of Islam was killed by two young boys. This battle had left the Mushrikeen grieved and they sought revenge.
Ramadan, Second Year after the Migration
Second Year After the Migration
Shawwal, Second Year After the Migration
After facing hostility from the Jews of Banu Qaynuqa, RasulAllah (saw) had ordered to besiege them. They forfeited and were expelled out of Medina.
Rabi al-Awwal, Third Year After the Migration
Ka'b bin Ashraf- a wealthy Jewish poet who would use his talent against the Prophet (saw) and the Muslims. The Prophet (saw) asked his companions "who will rid me of him?" 5 men responded to the call of the Prophet (saw) and their plan was to gain the confidence of Ka'b and then kill him. They executed the plan and Ka'b bin Ashraf was killed.
Shawwal, Third Year After the Migration
In revenge for Badr the Quraish had advanced to Medina with an army of 3000 men. The original plan of the Muslims was to remain in Medina and to defend, however some young men were eager to go out and meet the enemy. The Muslims had left with and army of 1000 but 300 hypocrites under the lead of Abdullah bin Ubayy withdrew.
The Prophet (saw) had left 50 archers on mount Ainain and they were told not to leave their position until they got the instruction to leave
The battle began and when it had seemed that the Muslims had been victorious, the archers who were told not to leave their positions left to collect the war booty (except a few.) It was then that Khalid bin Waleed- the commander of the Mushrikeen army- had brought the army from behind and surprised the Muslims creating complete disorder, and as a result defeat of the Muslims.
Victory into Defeat
Results of the Battle:
The Polytheists had lost 22 men, while the Muslims had lost 40. (Both parties had agreed to meet at Badr the next year, however Abu Sufyan had marched backed without meeting the Muslims.)
Safar, Fourth Year After the Migration
The Prophet(saw) had sent 10 men to teach Islam to two tribes who had shown interest in learning about faith. But they had proved to be treacherous when they had let 100 archers of the Hudhayl tribe attack the 10 Muslims. 7 of the Muslims were killed then, as for the other 3, one of them was killed when he showed resistence and the other two were sold to the Makkans.
Another more tragic incident occured at about the same time: The Prophet (saw) had 70 men who were well-versed in the Quran to the people of Najd upon the request of Abu Baraa Amir Ibn Malik. The Muslims camped at Bir Ma'una. Aamir bin Tufayl who was a bitter enemy of Islam first killed the man man who brough him a letter form the Prophet (saw), then he called Banu Sulaym and other sub tribes to attack the Muslims. They had all been killed except two.
Both of these intances brought much grief to the Prophet (saw), he (saw) prayed for the martyrs and he (saw) prayed against their killers.
The Jews of Banu Nadir had shown treachery to the prophet (saw) when they plotted to kill him. They had been given a deadline to leave Medina by a certain day and if they didn't they would be killed. The jews had began preparing to leave when Abdullah bin Ubayy- the leader of the hypocretes had bolded them by insuring them of his support with his 2000 warriors. Upon hearing this news the Prophet (saw) called the Muslims to war. Their army advanced towards Banu Nadir who had taken refuge in their fortresses. The Muslims were commanded to set the surrounding gardens on fire and cut the trees down.
Tafseer notes
After 6 days of siege, the Jews agreed to forfeit on the condition that they would be allowed to go into exile safely . They were given permission to leave with everything except their arms. Most of them had settled in Khaybar while some of them migrated to Syria.
After the exile of the Jews, they had teamed up with the Quraish and other tribes to seige the Muslims, they had agreed to advance towards the Muslims simultaneously.
Shawwal to Dhul Qa'dah, Five Years After the Migration
In defence the Muslims dug a trench around the north (the other three fronts were naturally fortified.) The Muslims worked in severe conditions, RasulAllah (saw) also dug the trench with them.The Confederates arrived with an army of 4000 men and 300 horses, but upon seeing th trench they became dumbfounded as it was something new to them.
The coalition ended when Nu'aym bin Mas'ood Ashja'i who had ties with the Jews and the Quraish used war strategy to create mutual suspicion between the allies, thereby shattering the alliance.
During the Battle of the Trench the cheiftain of Banu Quraydha broke the covenant with the Prophet (saw) and sided with the Mushrikeen. The Banu Quraydha had become completely averse to the fact that they were in a treaty with the muslims.
The Muslims were commanded to lay attack on the Banu Quraydha. After they were captured, the jugdement was made by Sa'd bin Mu'adh that the men were to be killed, the women and children taken as captive and the property to be divided among the Muslims.
When the Banu Mustaliq who were allies with Muslims sided with the Quraish RasulAllah (saw) gathered an army of 700 men to attack them.. They were taken by surprise, some of them were killed, and their belongings were taken- including the women and children.
Sha'ban, Five or Six Years After the Migration
Of the captives of Mustaliq was Javeria (ra) who was set free by the Prophet (saw) who then married her. As a result of this 100 families of the Banu Mustaliq were set free because they had become relatives of the Prophet (saw).
Marriage to Javeria (ra)
Dhul Qa'dah, Six Years After the Migration
The Prophet (saw) had seen a dream in which he and his compainions were praying in the Kaaba and shaving their heads. The Prophet (saw) set out with 1400 Muslims with their sacrificial animals. The Muslims were prevented from performing Umrah and the Treaty of Hudaibiyya was made.
Suhayl bin Amr was sent from the Makkans to make peace with the Muslims. The Treaty of Hudaibiyya was to last ten years, however not all the clauses of the treaty were in the favor of the Muslims, but Allah (swt) refers to this as a great victory in the Quran, Surah Fat'h:
Because of the Treaty of Hudaiybiyya there was no treat upon the Muslims from the Quraish. Now, RasulAllah (saw) was able to send letters to the various monarchs inviting them to Islam.
The letter of Prophet (saw) to Heraclius
Muharram, Seventh Year After the Migration
Only those Muslims who had accompanied the Prophet (saw) to Hudaibiyya could go. Khaybar had three main settlements, the conquest of Khaybar was a series of sieges on the Jewish strongholds.
The Jews in Khaybar were allowed to remain in their land upon their request that they would farm and the Muslims would receive half of the grains and fruit.
A year had passed since the Treaty of Hudaibiyya and the Muslims were now allowed to go to Makkah and perform Umrah. 2000 men went along RasulAllah (saw). The Prophet (saw) remained in Makkah for three days.
Marriage to Maymoona (ra)
On the Journey back to Medina the Prophet (saw) married Maymoona (ra), the widow of Humzah bin Abdul Muttalib and the aunt of Ibn Abbas.
Dhul Qa'dah, Seven Years After the Migration
Ramadan, Eight Years After the Migration
Time for the victory of the Believers had come, with the liberation of the Holy Kaaba to be pure of the idolaters. Due to a breach in the treaty of hudaibiyya by the Makkans, the Muslims silently set out with an army of 10 000 companions. When the Prophet (saw) entered Makkah anyone who took shelter in the house of Abu Sufyan, his own home or the Kaaba would be safe, and anyone who showed resistance would be killed. On that day the Kaaba was purified of the idols. RasulAllah (saw) then freed all of the Quraish to go their own way. However, the worst of the criminals were to be put to death (but their number was only about 6.) Also, many people had accepted Islam such as Abu Qahafa- tha father of Abu Bakr (ra) and Hind bint Utbah.
Shawwal, Eight Years After the Migration
After the Conquest of Makkah, the neighboring tribes wanted a war. And so, the Prophet (saw) set off with 12 000 soldiers. As the Muslims were still descending into the valley the enemy attacked causing chaos and terror in the Muslim army as they began to flee. The Prophet (saw) called out to his companions and slowly they returned. They killed the enemies and captured others. Thus we see how Allah (swt) united the believers and granted them victory.
Shawwal, Eight Years After the Migration
The Prophet (saw) advanced towards Ta'if with a large army, when he had reached the city they had already locked themselves up and refused to come out under any circumstance. After twenty days of seiging the city and no result the Prophet (saw) and the army journeyed back.
Rajab, Nine Years After the Migration
Upon hearing that the Romans were preparing to attack the Muslims for revenge of Mu'ta, the Prophet (saw) set out with an 30 000 men. It was a very difficult task because the date crops had just ripened and the summer heat was at its peak. Ali (ra) was left in charge of the women and children.
When the Byzantines learned about the army of advancing Muslims they had lost their courage and did not come out to face the army. But, RasulAllah (saw) decided to camp in Tabuk for twenty day, the benefits of this were that: the Romans would be intimidated by the Muslims also, neighboring Arab tribes made peace with the Muslims, and agreed to pay Jizya.
Nine Years After the Migration
This year, Abu Bakr (ra) was sent by RasulAllah (saw) to lead the pilgrims in perfroming Hajj. He left with 300 Muslims.
After Abua Bakr (ra) left, the Prophet (saw) received the first verses of surah Tawba. RasulAllah (saw) sent Ali (ra) to declare the
bara'ah
- the declaration of disassociation from the polytheist.
The many surrounding Arab tribes had seen the outcome of the Qursaish and realized the truth of the message the Prophet (saw) had brought. Many tribes visited Medina that year and it became known as the year of the delegations. The tribes would embrace Islam or some would agree to pay the Jizya. The Islamic State grew and governors were appointed in each area, teacher were also sent to teach the deen.
The Ninth Year After the Migration
The Tenth Year After the Migration
The Prophet (saw) was called to make a farewell pilgrimage. He left Medina and assumed the Ihram, the Prophet (saw) reached Makkah a week later. The Prophet (saw) performed Hajj, this was also when he said his last sermon at Arafah. After his address to the people the Prophet (saw) recieved the final revelation, in Surah Ma'idah:

Rabi al-Awwal, Eleventh Year After the Migration
When the time of the RasulAllah (saw)'s death had drawn near, he (saw) asked to stay with Aisha (ra)
He (saw) passed away, it was as though no day had been darker than the day he died.
On Tuesday the body of RasulAllah (saw) was washed the companions prayed the funeral prayer in groups of ten individually.
On return from the expedition Aisha (ra) was left behind, because she had gone searching for a necklace and when she returned the army camp had moved along. Safwan bin Mu'atal had found her as he was assigned to go back and make sure the army had not left anything behind. When Abdullah bin Ubayy saw Aisha (ra) returning on the camel of Safwan (ra) as he was leading it, he began to spread rumors.
Aisha (ra) was unaware of these rumors as she had fallen sick when she returned. When she found out about the lies she asked to go to her parents house, she would weep all day.
Eventually Allah(swt) had revealed verses about her innocence and the punishment for the slanderers.
Some of the Monarchs inlcuded the King of Abyssinia, Chosroes- the King of Persia and to the Roman Emperor- Heraculous
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