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Components of the Universe

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deja o

on 10 December 2014

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Transcript of Components of the Universe

Components of the Universe
Cris de la Garza
Deja Olumba

betcha will never see this agian!
Solar System Bodies
Life cycle of a star
The average star has a ranging mass of about 0.5-8 solar masses at the beginning of the cycle.
All stars are formed in nebulae, clouds of mainly hydrogen gas and dust. when the cloud's mass reaches a certain point, the cloud collapses under its own gravity. When the pressure of the core triggers nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium, a star is created.
Yellow Dwarf Phase
This is considered the "main phase" in which hydrogen is fused into helium the core. The average new star will burn cooler than most, will adopt a redish color, and take a long time to run out of hydrogen, on average for tens of billions of years. Massive stars, however, will burn hot and adopt a blue color. They will take a short amount of time to run out of hydrogen.
Red Giant Phase
Astronomers want to study the planets in our Solar System to compare to other exoplanets in space. A suggestion simulates what solar system bodies would look like if they were at the light-year distance of alien planets. Our planet reflects different amounts of light from different materials like ice, water and land and it is said that an observer would be able to pick out the different surface materials.
the core becomes hot enough for helium to fuse into carbon. the outer shells of the star cool slightly, expand, and give off less light. Massive stars become Red Supergiants.
HR Diagram
A Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram (HR Diagram) is a graphical tool that astronomers use to classify stars according to their luminosity, spectral type, color, temperature and evolutionary stage.
Average stars will become a Planetary Nebula, then a White Dwarf. Massive stars come to a more violent end; they become Supernovas and either form a Black Hole or a rapidly spinning Neutron Star.
A Massive Star has a mass about 150 times that of our Sun. They have a much shorter life cycle that Average stars.
An HR Diagram goes off of luminoity (in solar units) on the y-axis and Surface temperature (Kelvin) on the x-axis. Decreasing temperatures to the right and increasing to the left.
Fusion Vs Fission
Relative sizes of the Sun, Earth and moon
the process or result of joining two or more things together to form a singe entity.
the action of dividing or splitting something into two or more parts.
864,400 miles (1,391,000 km) in diameter
Types of Galaxies

7,981 miles (12,742 km) in diameter
a galaxy in which the stars and gas clouds are concentrated mainly in one or more spiral arms
2100 miles (3380 km) in diameter
a galaxy having an approximately elliptical shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile. these have no apparent origination and their stars have random orbits around the center of the galaxy.
92,960,000 miles (149,600,000 km) from the Sun to Earth
238,900 miles (384,400 km) from Earth to the Moon
1.3 mil Earths fit inside the sun
a galaxy that does not have a distinct regular shape
4 moons fit inside the Earth
Astronomical tools or equipment
What is a Light year?
Light years
A light year is the distance it takes light to travel in a year.
what is the distance of a light year?
A light year is 9,460,528,400,000,000 miles
Big Bang theory
Big Bang theory
The light from the Sun takes 490 light-seconds to reach the Earth
Astronomers view the entire electromagnetic spectrum to visualize the different details of different galaxies.
Astronomers also use extreme powerful telescopes to measure the distances between galaxies
In 1929, Edwin Hubble discovered that other galaxies were moving away from us, at proportional speeds of the distance from Earth. He realized that a long time ago (now know to be 14 billion years ago), the universe was concentrated in a single point in space. Conclusively, the universe was born in a violent explosion called the "Big Bang"
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