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Framing Process

COMM5735 New Media and Society
by

Zhao Zoe

on 16 December 2012

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Transcript of Framing Process

by Zoe Zhao Frame and Framing Process Definition Social Movement Framing Media Framing The Framing Perspective Since framing is commonly used in media studies, sociology, psychology, and political science, it is an interdisciplinary concept of social science. Framing Framing refers to the social construction of a social phenomenon often by mass media sources, political or social movements, political leaders, or other actors and organizations. It is a concept borrowed from Goffman (1974:21) to denote "Schemata of interpretation" that enable individuals "to locate, perceive , identify, and label" occurrences within their life space and the world at large. Social Movement Theory Notice: In the social movement theory, social movements are not viewed merely as carriers of extant ideas and meanings that grow automatically out of structural arrangements, unanticipated events, or existing ideologies. Rather, movement actors are viewed as signifying agents actively engaged in the production and maintenance of meaning for constituents, antagonists, and bystanders or observers.(Snow and Benford,1988) Three Levels of Framing Diagnostic Framing Prognostic Framing Motivational Framing Diagnostic framing Identification of a problem and
assignment of blame “Income Inequality” “Political Corruption” "Rent Seeking" "Propaganda Media" Diagnostic framing The diagnostic framing of income inequality in America helps boost the "Occupy Wall Street." Prognostic framing Suggest solutions, strategies, and tactics to a problem Some demands proposed by participants in the occupy movement. Motivational framing serves as a call to arms or rationale for action We are the 99% Occupy Wall Street ¡Basta YA! (“Enough”) Todd Gitlin: Media frames are persistent patterns of cognition, interpretation, and presentation, of selection, emphasis, and exclusion, by which symbol-handlers routinely organized discourse, whether verbal or visual. Framing theory arises out of the decline of resource mobilization perspective and the drawbacks of political process theory. It emphasizes the cultural and emotional aspects of the movement. Therefore, framing itself is only part of the story in the landscape of social movement theory. By Zoe Zhao Comprehensive perspective is needed! Early to middle-1900s Collective behavior Gustav LeBon Relative deprivation James Davies, Ted Gurr Early 1970s Rational choice Mancur Olson Late 1970s Resource mobilization McCarthy & Zald First Phase Second Phase Third Phase Political opportunity/Political process McAdam, Tarrow, Tilly 1980s-1990 Framing Theory Snow & Benford Late 1980- New Social Movements Inglehart,Habermas,Tilly 1990s- Cultural Perspective Goodwin and Jasper Late 1990- Development of Social Movement Theory The Theory Is Beautiful,
But Reality Is Baffling. Media Framing There are usually discrepancy between media framing and activists framing. Two Examples 1968 Chicago demonstration HK Social Movement
Film Festival Conflict With HSBC Bank October 6th 2012, when the organizers are playing a film discussing the power that banks wield over our lives outside of HSBC building. Security officers disrupted the activity, triggering a serious conflict. In the process, some of the equipment was permanently damaged, and a member of the audience had to make a trip to the hospital. Media Framing The organizing committee of the 10th HKSMFF: "A public space is a basic condition for civil society. Just as ordinary citizens do not have the resources to advertise in the mainstream media, we need this public space where information and messages can be desseminated. Protecting these public spaces is vital that citizens have chances to see alternative views. Therefore, we think that giving HSBC this special right to have their own laws on a pavement besides their building is totally absurd." Organizer Framing Mainstream Media HKSMFF Participant Occupy Central Member HKSMFF inmediahk HKSMFF Reason HSBC's Private Space Protect Public Space Privatized Public Space Key Words Darkest Days, Violence, Media Bias Keep Order, Protesters Voilence, Witness Different Framing Why do journalists choose to cover a news story from one angle rather than another? In his masterpiece <The Whole World Is Watching>, Gitlin claimed that Americans in the 1960’s relied on media to shape their ideology. They allowed the media to certify leaders and create celebrities through reporting news that fit within their media frame. Todd Gitlin was one of the first researchers to undertake a framing analysis of the news media. As the leader of the SDS(Students for a Democratic Society ) then, Gitlin pointed out that journalists in the 1960’s kept within western hegemonic culture by keeping news stories within harness and serving the interest of the elite by publishing what is “relative” and publishing news that does not violate core hegemonic values. Where is the Real World? At first, the media helped spread the SDS movement, but later on, its emphasis on the so-called "movement leaders" in turn wreaked havoc on its development. At last, the whole movement had been marginalized by the media.
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