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Transcript of 1984
Lesser of Two Evils
Testimonials ASSERTION BAND WAGON False Dilemma Propaganda GLITTERING GENERALITIES FALSE DILEMMA LESSER OF 2 EVILS TESTIMONIALS DOUBLE THINK -states a debatable idea as a fact, with no explanation or back up
-relies on the fact that people are gullible and will believe what they’re told -an appeal to a subject to follow the crowd
-people want to be part of a successful or popular endeavor for the sake of its popularity
-so companies make their opinion, product, etc. seem the most popular -the Party makes it seem as if one option is good and the other option is unacceptable, in many ways
-in the middle of hate week, Oceania switched its enemy from Eastasia to Eurasia
- must believe anything they are told about the past-thinking of memories/looking at old photographs is prohibited -use vague, positive words that demand approval without explanation -reduces a complex argument to make it seem like only one option is appropriate
- one option is described as good, and other is described as evil -specific type of false dilemma which offers two “bad” alternatives
-people are hesitant to agree with either one, so it makes one option seem horrendous so the other option doesn’t seem as bad - is the power to hold two completely contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously, and have them accept both of them -the attempt to connect a respectable or famous person with an item or idea The Effects of Government
on Society We will discuss the following topics:
- An overview of the effects of government on society in the novel "1984"
- Themes from the novel related to this topic
- The effects of government on modern day society
- Quotes said in the novel Two Minutes of Hate -every day the government forces daily telescreen specials where horrible images and sounds of Oceania's enemies are shown to the public and they are expected to boo, hiss, and curse and release negative emotions towards the enemy -this is a propaganda trick serving as a common enemy for people to unite against (Bandwagon Propaganda) Posters of Big Brother (Testimonial Propaganda) -Big Brother's face is seen in the novel on posters, coins, stamps with messages like "Big Brother is Watching You" -this common, respectable figure gives them a feeling of protection -they believe without Big Brother always monitoring them, life would not be safe "Victory" Items -government puts the word "victory" before most material items in society, to make them seem expensive and of good quality, when they really aren't ie. -victory gin
- Smith lives in a dump but it is called "Victory Mansions" "On coins, on stamps, on the covers of books, on banners, on posters, and on the wrapping of a cigarette packet -everywhere." (Orwell, 27) "He was the tormentor, he was the protector, he was the inquisitor, he was the friend. And once, Winston could not remember whether it was in drugged sleep or normal sleep, or even in a moment of weakfullness, a voice murmured in his ear: “Don't worry Winston, you are in my keeping. For seven years I have watched over you. Now the turning point has come. I shall save you, I shall make you perfect." (Orwell 244)
- Winston has respect for O'Brien because he is authoritative figure of society and this makes it easy for O'Brien to manipulate and trick him Why is propaganda important in the novel 1984? - rumors, myths and false information from propaganda control the minds of the people -propaganda is used as a powerful weapon against the citizens -the Party is able to make citizens believe anything it decrees even if it is entirely illogical -if propaganda rules all information, its impossible to have a grasp on reality -brainwashes them (glittering generalities propaganda) "2+2=5" -party is able to convince citizens that 2+2=5 (Assertion propaganda) -assertion propaganda because it is an illogical statement without backup and relies on the fact that people are gullible enough to believe it The Ministry of Truth -corrects old material to fit the Party’s belief on a subject (changes history) -ministry makes the past a time of misery and slavery so if anyone begins to think that their present society is unfair, etc. they see that the past was much worse -then the present society no longer seems as bad ie. "fighting for peace" (oxymoron) "War is Peace," "Freedom is Slavery," and "Ignorance is Strength." (double think propaganda) -on page 4 Winston sees these inscribed into a giant pyramid outside of the Ministry -these are the slogans of the Party, and they are trying to convince the citizens that what they want is what they already have -war is peace- having a common country enemy keeps people of Oceania united and peaceful
-freedom is slavery- the man who is free is doomed to fail
-ignorance is strength- unawareness and inability of people to recognize these contradictions is what gives Party strength and power "To know and not to know, to be conscious of complete truthfulness while telling carefully constructed lies, to hold simultaneously two opinions which canceled out, knowing them to be contradictory and believing in both of them, to use logic against logic." (Orwell, 35) The act of controlling or influencing someone or something in a skillfully clever underhand way. Themes Related To The Novel Totalitarianism and democracy The Dangers of Totalitarianism Big Brother Manipulation of the Mind: Control of Information and History Technology Language - Just like in “1984” our society is very heavily governed
•The key difference is that 1984’s society is totalitarian, run by a dictatorship; nobody has a say and all decisions are made by one leader.
•in OUR society, everyone has a say. It is a DEMOCRACY
•Relating the book to modern day circumstances...
•It shows that a society can be very heavily governed, and still be run fairly and have a happy society
•Freedom of expression important 1984 vs. now
1984 : People are steered away from consuming rare goods
Now : People are steered away from consuming rare goods
1984 : Helicopters silently watch over the masses to keep people from committing thoughtcrime
Now : Helicopters silently watch over our highways to keep people from breaking traffic laws
1984 : Telescreens in all public and private places, so the populace could be watched to prevent thoughtcrime.
Now : Surveillance cameras in most buildings (operated by businesses), and in some public streets (operated by police) to prevent crime. Although most of these cameras are operated by private businesses instead of our intrusive government, the end result is the same. Totalitarian governments today Government programs and choices Quotes from the novel “Nothing was your own except the few cubic centimetres inside your skull” (Orwell 27).
-this quote describes how strict the Oceania society is, and how much control the government has over its people. "'Who controls the past', ran the Party slogan, 'controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.'" Part 1, Chapter 3, pg. 37 "They were born, they grew up in the gutters, they went to work at twelve, they passed through a brief blossoming period of beauty and sexual desire, they married at twenty, they were middle-aged at thirty, they died, for the most part, at sixty. Heavy physical work, the care of home and children, petty quarrels with neighbors, films, football, beer, and, above all, gambling filled up the horizon of their minds." Part 1, Chapter 7, pg. 71 "a nation of warriors and fanatics, marching forward in perfect unity, all thinking the same thoughts and shouting the same slogans, perpetually working, fighting, triumphing, persecuting - three hundred million people all with the same face." Part 1, Chapter 7, pg. 77 "But it was all right, everything was all right, the struggle was finished. He had won the victory over himself. He loved Big Brother." Part 3, Chapter 6, pg. 300 “How could you make appeal to the future when not a trace of you, not even an anonymous word scribbled on a piece of paper, could physically survive?” (27)
The passage definitely one of the more disturbing parts in the book. Here, Orwell continues to portray his picture of an absolute, totalitarian government that controlled every single aspect of one’s life, with the utmost efficiency and accuracy. Being able to control everything, even history itself, is truly power "You will work for a while, you will be caught, you will confess, and then you will die... There is no possibility that any perceptible change will happen within our own lifetime. We are the dead" (Orwell 177). AN OVERVIEW OF THE EFFECTS OF GOVERNMENT ON SOCIETY IN 1984: - Winston (main character) is a regular citizen in Oceania
•He and everyone else must work for the government aka the Party
•Long tiring days so that citizens are in a state of exhaustion and will follow routine
•Winston and the rest of society are constantly being watched by cameras and their TV screens
TV screens (along with propaganda) constantly shows the face of the Party that controls Oceania: Big Brother
•Thoughtcrime is the worst crime you could commit: thinking thoughts disloyal to the Party
•Even a facial twitch displaying disloyal thoughts is not allowed
Long tiring days
•If thoughtcrime is committed citizens are punished and tortured
•The Party does not allow photographs to be taken or anything to be written down because they don’t want a record of the past
- Justify the present
•Winston illegally purchases a journal to write his “criminal” thoughts in Orwell's 1984 and Modern Day, see the Similarities? In the novel 1984 technology is used in many ways to invade one's privacy. Winston is constantly paranoid with fear because of how the telescreen, and authorities watch him. He could always be monitored even in the presence of privacy. For example, “He could be heard, of course, but so long as he stayed in his present position he could not be seen”(Orwell p.9) MIND CONTROL AND MANIPULATION In the novel 1984 technology is used in many ways to invade one's privacy. Winston is constantly paranoid with fear because of how the telescreen, and authorities watch him. He could always be monitored even in the presence of privacy. For example, “He could be heard, of course, but so long as he stayed in his present position he could not be seen”(Orwell p.9) Technology and
Privacy Issues manipulative actions lead to mind control this is how "Big Brother" stays in power and controls Oceania's citizens
manipulation is the seperation between society and government Manipulation Relating to 1984 George Orwell's 1984 spotlights many
issues about an individual's right to
privacy and about how public opinion
is manipulated The way the characters were watched in 1984 greatly resembles how people deal with privacy issues today. The government puts measures in
place and they say that the invasion of privacy is
for our protection and in some ways that is true. Not only did The Party have the ability to have eyes on everyone at any given time, but they also had the ability to get inside a persons brain to see their thoughts, feelings and basically anything else they wanted. The Party employs technology in such a way that they had invented “Facecrime” to deal with suspicious facial expressions and actions. There was telescreens installed almost everywhere Work Cited Beyer, Shannon. “Propaganda.” Slide Share, 2011. Web. Retrieved 27 October 2012
Oracle Thinkquest. “Propaganda Techniques.” Education Foundation, 2009. Web. Retrieved 29 October 2012. .
Orwell, George. 1984. New York: Signet Classic, New American Library, 1950. Print.
The Free Dictionary. Farlex, 2012. Web. Retrieved 3 October 2012. “It was terribly dangerous to let your thoughts wander when you were in any public place or within range of a telescreen. The smallest thing could give you away. A nervous tic, an unconscious look of anxiety, a habit of muttering to yourself–anything that carried with it the suggestion of abnormality, or having something to hide. In any case, to wear an improper expression on your face…; was itself a punishable offense.” (1984, Orwell, Chapter 5, Page 65). Telescreens are one of the party’s
greatest methods as they lead to
Winston’s ultimate downfall. The party
employs these telescreens almost
everywhere which are able to
successfully observe citizens of Oceania. Discussion Questions: Although in this day and age, new technology
has been created to invade our privacy in order
to keep us safe, and spy on us but other
technology has been created in order to let us
keep things private. The party used many advanced types of technology to invade the oceanians privacy. In 1984, authorities used telescreens and hidden microphones across the city, which enabled the Party to monitor its members almost all of the time. “inside the flat a fruity voice was reading out a list of figures which had something to do with the production of pig-iron. The voice came from the an oblong metal plaque like a dulled mirror which formed part of a surface of the right-hand wall. Winston turned a switch and the voice sank somewhat, though the words were still distinguishable. The instrument (the telescreen, it was called) could be dimmed, but there was no way of shutting it off completely.” #1) Totalitarianism is a political system where the state holds total authority over the society and those with more power enforce all rules and decisions. (1984) Libertarianism is the belief in liberty. Libertarians strive for a free, peaceful, abundant world where each individual has equal maximum opportunity. (Harrison Bergeron) Which political system would you rather have for where you live? #2) Which do you think is worse: mind control or physical control? “You can turn it off!” he said.
“Yes” Said O’Brien, “we can turn it
off. We have that privilege”
Winston and O’Brien talking.
Privacy away from the telescreens was a privilege afforded only to Inner Party members #3) The party says that the one who controls the past also control the present, and therefore, the future (hense why they fake and change history to fit their preferences). Do you agree or disagree with this statement? 1984 reveals that technology, which is generally perceived as working toward moral good, can also facilitate the most diabolical evil. Today authorities also use technology to invade people’s privacy. There are surveillance cameras everywhere, social networks and other forms of privacy invasion. Conclusion:
There are many forms of technology used throughout the novel to invade Winston’s and other Oceanian’s privacy. These forms of technology have somewhat translated and lead in to todays society with the amount of privacy we are given. #4) How does 1984 relate to real life events (either current, or in history) in terms of politics/society/media/etc? Forms of Manipulation Verbal Manipulation
Physical Manipulation Verbal Manipulation
The Party uses threats of execution, death and consequences of torture if citizens do not obey the regulations of Big Brother Quote Representing Verbal Manipulation
"He was already dead, he reflected. It seemed to him that it was only now, when he had begun to be able to formulate his thoughts, that he had taken the decisive step. The consequences of every act are included in the act itself. He wrote:
Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrime IS death" (Orwell, 28). Psychological Manipulation Party's control over independent thoughts
Propaganda is designed to make failures appear successful
Affects family structures, "Junior Spies"
"doublethink" = "reality control" Quotes Representing Psychological Manipulation "..And if all others accepted the lie that the Party members imposed-if all records told th same tale-then the lie passed into history and became truth. "Who controls the past," ran the Party Slogan,"controls the future: who controls the present controls the past."
.."Whatever was true from everlasting to everlasting. It was quite simple. All that was needed was an unending series of victories over your own memory. "Reality control", they called it, in Newspeak, "doublethink." (Orwell, 35) Two contradictory ideas that citizens are able to accept under the manipulation of "doublethink", examples are
Ministry of Plenty oversees economic shortages
Ministry of Peace wages war
Ministry of Truth conducts propaganda and historical revisionism
Ministry of Love is the center control of torture and punishment Physical Manipulation The Party watches for any signs of disloyalty which ultimately leads to arrest
Citizens of Oceania are worked to the point of exhaustion everyday keeping them in control Other Techniques That Achieve Mind Control Control of Historic Events
Language as Mind Control