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Matt McCallum

on 20 March 2014

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Transcript of Handshaking/Protocols

Thank you for viewing!
At this point the functions and importance of handshaking and protocols should hopefully be explained, please refer to the website if you have any further queries.
Hand shaking is the process by which two devices commence initial communication and establish a session.

The process is conducted in order to establish a set of rules for communication (a protocol) for both devices to follow.

This process must be completed to avoid incompatibilities.
Why is it important?
Hand shaking is important as each system and device is different and may have different capabilities and software structure.

Handshaking ensures that different devices will be able to select a mutually available protocol to continue communication.
How do handshaking and protocols tie in, and why are they important?
Handshaking methods and Protocols allow a information system to function, and can only work in conjunction with each other. They are the core mechanisms which work behind the scenes to allow everyday use of any digital information system.

Handshaking/protocols provide the essential mechanism for information systems to function at all.
Primary Protocols
A communication system is a system which enables users to send and receive data and information.

In order for communication systems to function, the process of Hand shaking must take place, and the appropriate protocols must be followed by the system.

How it works
Handshaking is a series of signals that flow between devices during data transmission.

There are two methods of handshaking to control the flow of data,
Hardware flow control
Software flow control.

Hardware Flow Control
Hardware flow control uses a dedicated connection, such as a wire.

Common hardware protocol is RTS/CTS (Request to send/Clear to send)
Software flow control
Software flow control uses a special code sent with the data. It is used for long distance communication.

A common software protocol is XON/XOFF (X stands for transmit).
Handshaking Methods
A Protocol is a set of rules that governs the transfer of data between computers.

Protocols define how a link is established, how Information is transmitted and how errors are detected.

Two computers must use the same protocols when they are communicating in order for communication to be successful.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol functions as a request-response protocol, it is a secure way of accessing or sending information across a web page.

HTTP is the default protocol of web pages and web browsers.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is a common set of rules for data transmission and error detection across the internet. It works by breaking data into smaller packets.
Secure Socket Layers is a cryptographic protocol used for network security.
File Transfer Protocol is a protocol which enables the client computer (user) to log on to the server. FTP is the oldest form of remote file access for the internet.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is a set of communication guidelines which allows software to send email through the internet.
Post office Protocol is a protocol that specifies how email messages may be exchanged between a computer and the ISP.

POP ussualy works in conjunction with SMTP
How it works:
Client sends request (usually by establishing a TCP/IP connection) to the server
Server receives client's request and returns
a response (typically the requested material)
TCP/IP Specifics
TCP/IP is two protocols which are used in conjunction with each other.

Due to the nature of TCP/IP, most other protocols rely on the presence of TCP/IP in order to function

Transmission Control Protocol is responsible checking reliability of data transmission and checks incoming packets for errors. The TCP also submits requests for re-transmissions if errors are found.

The design of TCP means error recovery is done end-to-end from server to client.
Internet Protocol dictates how packets of data are sent out over networks.

IP moves packets from node to node based on the Packet's four byte destination address (IP address.)
How it works:
SSL follows an asymmetric Cryptographic procedure whereby the web browser generates a public key and a private key, the public is placed in a data file known as a certificate signing request. The private key is given to the recipient only.

SSL encrypts network connection segments above the transport layer.
How it works:
File Transfer Protocol works through the internet, utilizing one connection for commands and the other for sending and receiving data.

File Transfer Protocol may work through Active connection, and/or Passive connection.

Active Connection and Passive Connection
In an active FTP connection, the client opens a port and listens while the server actively connects to it.
In a passive FTP connection, the server opens a port and passively listens, and the client actively connects to it.
How it works:
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol provides a set of codes which simplifies the communication of email messages between servers. It allows the server to break up emails into categories other servers can understand.

SMTP only works for the sending of Emails, for processing the incoming of emails, another protocol, such as POP, is required
How it works:
Post office Protocol, or its latest iteration; POP3, handles the processing of incoming email messages.

As emails are usually not able to be directly delivered to your computer, they are instead stored on a server, POP handles the accessing and download of these email messages from the server to the client (your computer).

POP only handles incoming emails, and thus must be used in conjunction with SMTP to allow full email capability.
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