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Anth111 lec 5 SPR14

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Julie Jenkins

on 8 February 2016

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Transcript of Anth111 lec 5 SPR14

Theorizing the Local & the Global
Global Forces, Local Lives

What is Globalization?
“refers to the world wide changes that are increasingly integrating and remolding the lives” of people around the world.

“objective and empirical process of increasing economic and political connectivity, a subjective process of unfolding in consciousness as the collective awareness of growing global interconnectedness, and hot of specific globalizing projects that seek to shape global conditions.”
When did Globalization begin?
600 years ago (1400)- development of more intensive global trade
1400-1800- “European Expansion”
Industrial Revolution & Colonialism- 1700s-1900s
Because of increased contact and movement of peoples, objects, and ideas and integration in the political sphere, are cultures around the world becoming more similar?
Process of where ideas & objects spread ‘localized’ into particular social structures and cultural systems of meaning.
Just because history wasn't recorded, doesn't mean it didn't happen
What does globalization mean to you?
McDonaldization Theory:

McD's business principles is forming a specific kind of rationality that is spread to other sectors of life
-Calculable (fast & inexpensive to produce)
-Deskilled labor
But do need to pay attention to terms of change and power relations involved
-Acculturation policies
-Directed changed (Development & Aid)
cultural homogeneity/imperialism/ Westernization/Americanization
but...people have agency
our culture is also affected by others
Other cultures are influenced by other non-'western' cultures
blending of cultures
but...hybridity assumes the mixing of two 'pure' cultures
--never has existed
--blending upon blending upon blending upon blending....
Prior to 1400:
--recognize transcontinental migration
--regional and long-distance trade
--diffusion of technologies, like agriculture
"Clash of Civilizations"
Samuel Huntington
--Post Cold War, conflict based on 'culture' & religion
--'civilizations' (super-cultures) vs nation states
--Western, Islamic, Latin American, Chinese, Hindu, Japanese, Orthodox, African
--political perspective on 'culture'
--characteristics that distinguish one group from another
--internal divisions within 'civilizations'?
--interaction & inter-dependency
--Political changes, free trade, technological innovation have increased productivity and efficiency
--Enable competition and connect across vast distances
-- Result: world is ‘flat’- economic and social opportunities are increasingly available to all people regardless of geographical location

Globalization is an UNEVEN process
--not everyone has the same opportunities
--income inequality has increased- within nation-states & between nation-states

--Friedman sees 'tradition' as obstacle to progress
--'tradition' really symbols/practices that are manipulated to serve present interests/needs
Why do civilizations clash?
1. historical, cultural difference
2. increasing interaction
3. economic & social change leads to diminished local identities. replaced with religious identities
4. Non-Western civilizations want to challenge West and influence world
5. increasing economic regionalism
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