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Chapter 9: Drawing

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carolina ethridge

on 3 August 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 9: Drawing

A World of Art
Chapter 9: Drawing


What is a medium?

What is the technique known as metalpoint?

What are the characteristics of wet media?

How can drawing be an innovative medium?

Fig. 9- 1 Jan Vermeer, The Allegory of Painting ( The Painter and His Model as Clio), 1665– 66. Oil on canvas, 48 * 40 in. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria.


Fig. 9- 2 Mimis and kangaroo, rock art, Oenpelli, Arnhem Land, Australia. Older paintings before 7000 BCE, kangaroo probably post- contact


Fig. 9- 3 Workshop of Pollaiuolo (?), Youth Drawing, late 15th century. Pen and ink with wash on paper, 75/ 8 * 41/ 2 in.

History of Drawing in Europe


Fig. 9- 5 Leonardo da Vinci, Study for a Sleeve, c. 1510– 13. Pen, lampblack, and chalk, 31/ 8 * 63/ 4 in. The Royal Collection.

Fig. 9- 4 Leonardo da Vinci, Madonna and Child with St. Anne and Infant St. John the Baptist, c. 1505– 07. Charcoal ( and wash?) heightened with white chalk on paper, mounted on canvas, 553/ 4 * 411/ 4 in. National Gallery, London.

History of Drawing in Europe


DRY MEDIA Metalpoint

Figs. 9- 7 and 9- 8 Raphael, Studies for The Alba Madonna ( recto and verso), c. 1511. Left: red chalk; right: red chalk and pen and ink, both 165/ 8 * 103/ 4 in. Musée des Beaux Arts, Lille, France.

Works in Progress: Raphael’s Alba Madonna

Fig. 9- 9 Raphael, The Alba Madonna, c. 1510. Oil on panel transferred to canvas, diameter 371/ 4 in.; framed: 54 * 531/ 2 in. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Andrew W. Mellon Collection.

Works in Progress: Raphael’s Alba Madonna

Fig. 9- 10 Georgia O’Keeffe, Banana Flower, 1933. Charcoal and black chalk on paper, 213/ 4 * 143/ 4 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U. S. A. Given anonymously ( by exchange). http://www.wikipaintings.org/en/georgia-o-keeffe/mode/all-paintings/1

Chalk and Charcoal

Chalk and Charcoal:

Fig. 9- 11 Käthe Kollwitz, Self- Portrait, Drawing, 1933. Charcoal on brown laid Ingres paper 183/ 4 * 25 in. National Gallery of Art, W ashington, D. C. Rosenwald Collection.

Fig. 9- 12 Georges Seurat, Café Concert, c. 1887– 88. Conté crayon 12 * 91/ 4 in. Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Providence. Gift of Mrs. Murray S. Danforth.

Conte Crayon

Fig. 9- 13 Vija Celmins ( b. 1939), Untitled ( Ocean), 1970. Graphite on acrylic ground on paper, 14 1/ 8 * 18 7/ 8 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U. S. A. Mrs. Florene M. Schoenborn Fund.

DRAWING MATERIALS: Dry Media : Graphite

Fig. 9- 14 Edgar Degas, After the Bath, Woman Drying Herself, c. 1889– 90. Pastel on paper, 265/ 8 * 223/ 4 in. The Samuel Courtauld Trust, Courtauld Institute Galleries, London.


Fig. 9- 15 Mary Cassatt, Young Mother, Daughter, and Son, 1913. Pastel on paper, 431/ 4 * 331/ 4 in.


Fig. 9- 16 Sandy Brooke, Fate and Luck: Eclipse, 2011. Oilstick on linen, 30 * 24 in.

Fig. 9- 17 Elisabetta Sirani, The Holy Family with a K neeling Monastic Saint, c. 1660. Pen and brown ink, black chalk, on paper, 103/ 8 * 73/ 8 in.

Fig. 9- 18 Jean Dubuffet, Corps de Dame, June– December 1950. Pen, reed pen, and ink, 105/ 8 * 83/ 8 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U. S. A. The Joan and Lester Avnet Collection. ( 54.1978).

Liquid Media: Pen and Ink


Fig. 9- 21 Henri Matisse, Venus, 1952. Paper collage on canvas, 397/ 8 * 301/ 8 in. National Gallery of Art, Washington, D. C. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Fund. http://www.henri-matisse.net/cut_outs.html

Fig. 9- 22 Whitfield Lovell, Whispers from the Walls, 1999. Mixed- media i nstallation, varying dimensions. Courtesy DC Moore Gallery, New York.

Innovative Drawing Media

Innovative Drawing Media

Innovative Drawing Media

THE CRITICAL PROCESS Thinking about Drawing

Fig. 9- 25 Frank Auerbach, Head of Catherine Lampert VI, 1979– 1980. Charcoal and chalk on paper, 303/ 8 * 23 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, NY, U. S. A. Purchase. ( 436.1981).

Mimi spirits (ancestral spirits)

Artists credit the mimis that give them their designs
Longest continuous artistic practice
Rock art date back 40,000 -6,000B.C.E.
The earliest known drawings date from 30,000 to 10,000 B.C.. They were found on the walls of caves in France and Spain.
Ancient Egyptians (beginning about 3000 B.C.) decorated the walls of their temples and tombs with scenes of daily life. Texts written on papyrus (an early form of paper) were illustrated with similar designs in pen and ink.

In the Middle Ages, from about the 400's to the 1400's, art was produced mainly to glorify God and to teach religion. Painting and drawing merged in the illustration of Bibles and prayer books produced by monks. These beautifully decorated manuscripts were hand-lettered on vellum (calfskin) and later paper.
Paper was not made in Europe until the 1100's, and at first it was expensive and difficult to obtain. Artists sometimes drew on prepared animal skins such as parchment or vellum. But these were also expensive. For centuries, artists made their preparatory drawings on tablets made of slate, wood, or wax.
The Renaissance

Modern drawing in Europe began in the 1400's in Italy, during the period known as the Renaissance. A special love of drawing was born at this time. The production of drawings also increased steadily. This was because paper had become easier to obtain and because of the new importance attached to drawing.

1800's and 1900's
They became the preferred drawing tools of many artists. The French artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres produced highly finished portrait drawings in this medium.

Raphael, Self portrait (chalk heightened with white on paper). Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford, UK / The Bridgeman Art Library
Fig.9-6 Leonardo da Vinci, Study of a woman's head or of the angel of the Vergine delle Rocco, 1473. Silverpoint with white highlights on prepared paper, 7 1/8 x b 1/4 in. Biblioteca Reale, Turin, Italy.


Expressive Quality
invented in 1795 by Nicolas-Jacques Conté,
Georges Seurat used Conté crayons to produce many of his studies.

discovery of a large graphite deposit in Borrowdale, England in 1564.
Nuremberg, Germany was the birthplace of the first mass-produced pencils in 1662.
A Pastel in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.
In past pastel used for preparatory studies then becomes a primary medium
Different from pastel oilsticks, denser more "gestural freedom" and ""direct engagement"
Sketching with scissors

Frank Auerbach in his north London studio. Photo: Laura Hynd

Fig.9-23 William Kentridge, four drawing fromn WEIGHINg ... and WANTING, 1997-09. Cahrcoal, pastel on paper, from left to right
Fig.9-24 Marjane Satrapi, page from the "Kim Wilde" chapter of Persepolis, 2001. Ink on paper , 16 6/16 x11 11/16 in.
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