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The Causes of the American Revolution
Transcript of The Causes of the American Revolution
The Battle of Yorktown
Thomas Paine's "Common Sense"
September 28, 1781
George Washington commands 17,000 French and Continental troops
British General Lord Charles Cornwallis led 9,000 British troops in Yorktown
French fleet was commanded by Francois Count de Grasse
French fleet blocked british from escaping by sea
The French Fleet bombarded the British for three weeks non stop
Finally on October 17, 1781 General Cornwallis surrenders to Washington hence ending the Revolutionary War
Published during January 9, 1776
It challenged the British government and its monarchy
"Common Sense" played a role in transforming a little rebellion into the American Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
The Battle of Bunker Hill
On June 16, 1775, having learned that the British were planning to send troops from Boston to occupy the hills surrounding the city 1,000 militiamen commanded by Colonel William Prescott built fortifications in Breeds Hill around the city of Boston
The British Major General William Howe was in control of 2200 British infantry soldiers
The inexperienced american militia was outnumbered and was no match for the highly trained British army(also was the world's most powerful army at the time) the militia was limited to ammo so the outcome wasn't great.
The militia was eager to retaliate to against the British army
In the end the american militia lost the battle despite having the strategic position the ragtag group of soldiers were even more patriotic towards the cause of the revolution
The British army also knew this would not be an easy fight to win because of expenses and resources
Fun Fact: The quote "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!" came from Prescott when he was preparing his men for the battle
The Bostons Massacre was an incident on March 5, 1770 in which British Army soldiers killed five civilians (three died immediately & two died later due to wounds) & injured six others.
These soldiers had received no previous orders from any commanding officer to do such a act.
Also known as The Incident on King Street.
Olive Branch Petition
The Olive Branch Petition is a document in which Congress declared that the Colonists had no intention of war.
Although, it was finished before the Declaration, it wasn't received by the King before the Declaration, making it invalid.
Boston Tea Party
Referred to by John Adams as "the Destruction of Tea in Boston"
Dec. 16, 1773, Massachusetts Patriots throw overboard 342 crates of tea in response to the monopoly granted by Parliament to the East India Co.
It took nearly three hours for more than 100 colonists to empty the tea into Boston Harbor. The chests held more than 90,000 lbs. (45 tons) of tea, which would cost nearly $1,000,000 dollars today.
Committees of Correspondence
Was American Colonists' first institution for maintaining communication with the other colonies.
It was organized about a decade before the American Revolution started.
The first Committee of Correspondence was formed in 1764 in Boston.
In March of 1773, the Virginia House of Burgesses proposed the idea for having an Intercolonial Committee that would discuss with all the colonies along try to communicate with the rest of the world.
In 1774, the First Continental Congress had its first meeting.
The Battle of Saratoga
The British army was commanded by General Burgoyne and the Continental army was led by General Gates
On October 7th Burgoyne decided to go on the offensive and clash with the Continental army. The British army was broken up and lost the battle
86% of Burgoyne's army surrendered and was captured(About 5200 British troops and Hessians)
This was a very critical win for the Continental army.
This is know as the turning point of the American Revolution
French were now confident to send their troops, resources, and money to the Continental army which played a big role later on in the American Revolution
On an emotional scale the troops were more confident and patriotic as ever
It was an up hill battle from this point on for the Continental army
Signed by 56 member of the Continental Congress.
Thomas Jefferson was the main author
Along with the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence could be counted as part of the 3 founding documents of the US
Major Concept: Discontent about Foreign rule
After the French and Indian war the British lost a great deal of money because they need help to pay off the debt they taxed the colonies. Many people didn't understand why they were paying money for the government they were trying to get away from
One of the reasons the colonists were mad at England was because of economic issues between them
The colonist didn't like they were being taxed on things that were free before
The taxation led to a boycott in the Boston Harbor also known as The Boston Tea Party and that also led to the chain of events to the American Revolution
Mercantilism-"system that encouraged the idea of government trade regulation to gain wealth"
This idea was a way to move away from the agriculture system as an economic base
The idea of Mercantilism was approved from the 15th century to the 18th century but today it is disapproved
Although mercantilism is disapproved today the way our economy works was formed off the idea
"NO TAXATION WITHOUT Representation"
Means that the colonist actually wanted some sort of say in the taxation of the people
The colonist's idea of representation was getting a governor to represent each colony and vote for them in the parliament
Famous cause of the American revolution
"No taxation without representation" really meant, "No taxation by Parliament. No representation in Parliament. Let us run our own affairs."
" The shot heard around the world"
Refers to the start of the American Revolution
During the morning of April 19, 1775 British General Gage wanted to surprise attack the colonial militia and because of the news of the militia stealing gunpowder, ammo, and guns.
The objective for the British was to capture Samuel Adams and John Hancock
But spies of militia got information of this attack and they alerted the minutemen men of the attack
Minutemen were the unorganized militia for the colonial army. They were said to be prepared by a minutes time
Paul Revere warn the minutemen by saying "The British are coming.The British are coming. One by land, two by sea"
The British advanced into Lexington Greens where 70 minutemen were pointing their rifles and were prepared for them
The "shot heard around the world" was the first shot of the American Revolution
The Battle of Lexington/Concord ended in a colonial victory and the retreat of the British. The victory gave a lot of self esteem to the rag tag minute men who won against the most powerful army in the world.
The Coercive act was a way of punishing the colonies for protesting and taring and feathering the local officials
It restricted trade of the colonies
The colonists were infuriated by the passing of this act
The result of the Coercive act had a reverse effect it helped the colonist which wanted to be free from England