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Poetry

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on 6 October 2017

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Transcript of Poetry

Poetry is...
A type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)

Poetry Form
FORM - the appearance of the words on the page

LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem

STANZA - a group of lines arranged together

Kinds of Stanzas
Couplet = a two line stanza
Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza
Quatrain = a four line stanza
Quintet = a five line stanza
Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza
Septet = a seven line stanza
Octave = an eight line stanza

Sound Effects: Rhythm
The beat created by the sounds of the words in a poem.

Rhythm can be created by meter, rhyme, alliteration and refrain.

Point of View
Poet Speaker
Poetry
The poet is the author of the poem.
The speaker is the narrator of the poem.
A word is dead
When it is said,
Some say.

I say it just
Begins to live
That day.

Meter
A pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Occurs when stressed and unstressed syllables of the words in a poem are arranged in a repeating pattern.

When poets write in meter, they count out the number of stressed (strong) syllables and unstressed (weak) syllables for each line. Then they repeat the pattern throughout the poem.

Meter
FOOT - unit of meter

A foot can have two or three syllables.

Usually consists of one stressed and one or more unstressed syllables

TYPES OF FEET
The types of feet are determined by the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables.
(cont.)

Meter
TYPES OF FEET (cont.)

Iambic - unstressed, stressed
Trochaic - stressed, unstressed
Anapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressed
Dactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed

Meter
Kinds of Metrical Lines

monometer = one foot on a line
dimeter = two feet on a line
trimeter = three feet on a line
tetrameter = four feet on a line
pentameter = five feet on a line
hexameter = six feet on a line
heptameter = seven feet on a line
octometer = eight feet on a line

Free Verse Poetry
Unlike metered poetry, free verse poetry does NOT have any repeating patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables.

Does NOT have rhyme.

Free verse poetry is very conversational - sounds like someone talking with you.

A more modern type of poetry.

Blank Verse Poetry
Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme.

from
Julius Caesar

Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,
It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,
Will come when it will come.

Rhyme
Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds.


(A word always rhymes with itself.)

LAMP
STAMP

Share the short “a” vowel sound
Share the combined “mp” consonant sound

End Rhyme
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line.

Hector the Collector
Collected bits of
string
.
Collected dolls with broken heads
And rusty bells that would not
ring
.

Internal Rhyme
A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line.


Once upon a midnight
dreary
, while I pondered weak and
weary
.

From “The Raven”
by Edgar Allan Poe

Near Rhyme
a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme, slant rhyme

The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH

ROSE - LOSE

Different vowel sounds
(long “o” and “oo” )
Share the same consonant sound

PHONE - HOME

Different consonant sounds
(“n” and “m”)
Share the same vowel sound
(long “o”)

Rhyme Scheme
A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always).


Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)

Sample Rhyme Scheme
The Germ by Ogden Nash

A mighty creature is the
germ
,
Though smaller than the
pachyderm
.
His customary dwelling
place
Is deep within the human
race
.
His childish pride he often
pleases
By giving people strange
diseases
.
Do you, my poppet, feel
infirm
?
You probably contain a
germ
.

a
a
b
b
c
c
a
a

Alliteration
Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words

If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?

Consonance
Similar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .

The repeated consonant sounds can be anywhere in the words

“silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . .”

Assonance
Repeated VOWEL sounds in a line or lines of poetry.

(Often creates near rhyme.)

Lake Fate Base Fade

(All share the long “a” sound.)

Examples of Assonance
“Slow the low gradual moan came in the snowing.”
John Masefield

"The crumbling thunder of seas" Robert Louis Stevenson


Refrain
A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.
(Like the chorus in a song)

“Quoth the raven, ‘Nevermore.’”

types of poetry
Lyric
A short poem

Usually written in first person point of view

Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene

Do not tell a story and are often musical

Haiku
A Japanese poem written in three lines

Five Syllables
Seven Syllables
Five Syllables

An old silent pond . . .
A frog jumps into the pond.
Splash! Silence again.

Cinquain
A five line poem containing 22 syllables

Two Syllables
Four Syllables
Six Syllables
Eight Syllables
Two Syllables

How frail
Above the bulk
Of crashing water hangs
Autumnal, evanescent, wan
The moon.

Shakespearean Sonnet
A fourteen line poem with a specific rhyme scheme.

The poem is written in three quatrains and ends with a couplet.

The rhyme scheme is
abab cdcd efef gg

Narrative Poems
A poem that tells a story.

Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry because the poet needs to establish characters and a plot.

Examples of Narrative Poems

“The Raven”
“The Highwayman”
“Casey at the Bat”
“The Walrus and the Carpenter”

Concrete Poems
In concrete poems, the words are arranged to create a picture that relates to the content of the poem.

Figurative Language Terms
Simile
Metaphor
Personification
Imagery
Symbolism

There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.
-Hamlet
Shall I compare thee to a summer's
day
?
Thou art more lovely and more
temperate
:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of
May
,
And summer's lease hath all too short a
date
:
Sometime too hot the eye of heaven
shines
,
And often is his gold complexion
dimm'd
;
And every fair from fair sometime
declines
,
By chance, or nature's changing course,
untrimm'd
;
But thy eternal summer shall not
fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou
ow'st
;
Nor shall Death brag thou wander'st in his
shade
,
When in eternal lines to time thou
grow'st
;
So long as men can breathe or eyes can
see
,
So long lives this, and this gives life to
thee
.
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