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Comparing Operating Systems: Linux and Windows
Transcript of Comparing Operating Systems: Linux and Windows
Pointers This is the environment that a lot
of graphical user interfaces use The Main Tasks of an Operating System The First Task The first task of an operating system is managing software and hardware resources. Programs compete for attention of the CPU and it is up to the operating system to determine what programs get to use the CPU. It chooses based on what is the greatest good for all the users and applications The Second Task The second main task is to make sure that programs built on one computer for the operating system will work with other computers with the same operating system regardless of hardware. This is known as a consistent application user interface. Types of Operating Systems A Real-Time Operating system is an operating system with very little user interface capability and no end user utilities. They are usually used for the control of machinery, scientific instruments and industrial systems. They need to good at resource management as their use requires them to execute operations precisely and at a steady rate. Real Time The British Army uses a Real Time Operating System on some of it's vehicles like tanks Single-User, Single task operating systems are operating systems that allow a single user to perform a single action at a time. Single Use, Single Task The Palm OS for tablet PC's uses a single user, sing task operating system Single-User, multi-tasking operating systems allow a single user to perform a multitude of actions at a time. This is the most common type of operating system and is used on a majority of desktop PC’s. Windows and Mac OS are examples. Single User, Multi-Tasking Multi User operating systems allow multiple users to operate a computer simultaneously. The operating system needs to manage resources between the users fairly and make sure that an error for a user does not result in the same error for the others. Multi User S6f computers uses a single user, multitasking operating system. Each of the users has a PC which allows them to perform multiple tasks. The difference between this and a regular desktop PC is that the files and programs are all stored on an external server. S6F Software Utilities Like the Operating System, Software Utilities help to run a computer. They help to make sure that the hardware, software and OS are running properly and also managed data storage and file organization. They also improve the performance of the computer Disk Compression tools compress and decompress hard drives on the computer to make better use of available space on the hard drive. A Disk Defragmentation takes all of the files of a computer and re arranges the hard rive so that the computer runs faster. It arranges files in a way so that the computer doesn't need to look all over the hard drive to find all the files. For example, if the files to a program are all in the same place, then the computer can run that program faster because it doesn't need to spend so much time looking for the other files on a hard drive.
This helps the user because they can get more work done in the same amount of time and there is less time waiting for processes. Disk Checkers and Cleaners remove unwanted and unused files on a system to make it run faster. An example of a disk cleaner is Wise Disk Cleaner. This improves speed as it will be easier for the computer to find files and programs on a hard drive. They remove temporary internet files and unused files. There may also be harmful files on the computer slowing it down. The computer speeds up because it is not spending time looking for the program in the clutter of unused programs. This improves the user experience as it means that the user can get more work done because the programs are running faster and finding the files becomes easier. Anti-virus software make sure than there are no malicious files or programs in your computer and warn you about the files and programs you download or install. An example of anti-virus software is Norton Anti-Virus. Viruses have a multitude of effects on the computer which can make it's performance worse so removing them should improve performance. Getting rid of things like Key loggers which can can find out your passwords, worms which spread viruses through email, ad ware which constantly annoys the user with advertisements and Trojan horses that pretend to be good programs and allow access to hackers can all be removed with anti-virus software. This will improve the user experience because it means that the computer functions in the intended way and the user is not fighting the system to get their work done. Furthermore, the user does not lose money to fix it. There is also less downtime so the user can get on with their work. It also makes the user safer and as a result, they do not need to spend time checking if there sites are safe. Backup facilities allow users to backup a version of all the files on their system. This is useful if there is a problem with the system and files are lost. All you need to do is restore the system from your last backup which means that you don't lose all your work, programs and other things in the case of a virus or hardware malfunction. Backups can be done to external hard drives or to the internet. To backup files on a computer, go to Control Panel, System and Maintenance and then select backup and restore. This improves the user experience as the user doesn't lose too much progress on their work. Cryptographic tools allow users to encrypt files or decrypt encrypted files. Encrypting files stops undesirable users from getting access to your files. If they are sent over a network and are intercepted, then it is harder for the intercepting party to gain access to the data on those files. To encrypt or decrypt a file, right click on the file, click properties and then go to the advanced tab. Here select 'Encrypt Contents to Secure Data'. This improves the user experience because the user has peace of mind and can get on with other work without worrying about it. It also reduces the chance of your work being stolen by others. If they are stolen, then the user may how to legal fees to work a way to get their work back and copyrighted. They may not get it back which could kill a whole project. Cryptographic tools remove these problems. Disk partitions software create separations in the disk which are treated like separate disk spaces. This is commonly used to install 2 different Operating systems on 1 PC. They can improve performance because they can be dedicated to certain tasks and be far more efficient than the whole computer at those tasks. For example, a partition of your hard drive just for games means that your computer doesn't waste resources on other programs while you play and can run the game faster as it is easier to find. This improves user experience as it means they can separate the different tasks on the computer and find what they want easier. It also saves money as you do not need to spend money on a second hard drive for a different task Hex Editors directly modify the text or data of a file. They directly modify the binary code of a program or data file. The code is displayed in Hexi-Decimal. It is also a way to program files but at a much more basic level that is more time consuming.This can be used to bring old dead hard drives to life. An Example of a hex editor is HxD Editor. This can improve computer performance as there may be files on a computer not working properly or efficiently stopping the whole hard drive from working. This will help the user as they do not lose all the files they have been working on and this in turn saves time. How do Software Utilities help the end user? Software utilities as a whole make your user experience smoother. Disk Cleaner and Defragmentation software speed up your computer. Anti Virus software keeps harmful files and programs out of your computer so they don't affect the useful ones. Disk Partitions can make it easier for you to run programs faster if you dedicate parts of your hard drive for different tasks. Encrypting creates files that can only be accessed by the people who are meant to. They improve the performance of a computer. Disk Compression Tools and Disk Defragmentation Disk Cleaners and Checkers Hex Editors Disk Partitions Anti-Virus Software Cryptographic Tools Backup Tools Deletion of Internet History and Cookies Internet History and cookies are collected when you visit websites. The browser usually records the address of the website and some websites store cookies on the computer which remember user settings and makes the website more personalized for the user. Deleting internet history and cookies can improve the speed of the computer as the space on the hard drive could be used for other things. However, it may make going to certain sites slower as browsers use that data to gain access to a site faster.
All this helps the user because it makes room for more useful data to be stored on a hard drive and also speeds up the running of programs as it becomes easier to find the relevant data on a program which saves the user time. Removing Software To remove software on a computer, you need to go into control panel and select add or remove programs. Here, you can see a list of programs and you can select what you want to remove. Removing unused or unsafe software can improve the speed of the computer as it can more efficiently find the data on a hard drive. It also means that more useful programs can be installed. As a result the computer runs faster
This improves the user experience because the user can find the programs they want faster as there are fewer unused programs to sift through. It also means programs run faster as the computer doesn't need to spend so much time sifting through the hard drive for the relevant data. To Run the Disk Defragmentation Tool
Click on; All Programs – Accessories – System Tools – Disk Defragmentation – Select Disk to defragment.
To determine if the disk needs, defragmenting, you need to analyse the disk. If the number is above 10%, you should defrag. Firewalls A firewall is a software or hardware component of a PC which protects the PC by keeping track of the packets of data going into the PC. It checks to see if the provider of the data can be trusted and blocks if they are not. It can be set up to block things specific to each user and if a program or download is not getting through, it can be granted access through the firewall but the user may be putting him at risk.
Firewalls work in 3 different ways. Packet filtering sets packets through a series of filters. If they pass, they are sent to the requesting system and all others are discarded. A Proxy service takes information from the internet and sends it to the requesting system. Stateful inspection looks at certain parts of a packet against a database of trusted information. The database is constructed based on packets being sent out of the system. If the packet information is similar enough, it will let it through.
Turning the firewall off may increase your internet speed as there is no need to check packets of data but at the cost of safety. Turning on the firewall keeps the user safe from viruses and harmful data. This improves the user experience because for similiar reasons to anti-virus software. The user will feel safer.
To access firewall setting, you need to go to control panel, then security and then windows firewall. All browsers allow the user to delete history and cookies. You can also use the tool provided by the computer. To do this, Click on control panel, network and internet and then delete browsing history and cookies. Removing Startup Programs Some programs automatically run when you boot the computer. These are usually programs like anti-virus but some programs are not needed at startup and can slow down the speed of the computer. Removing them can improve the computers performance at startup as the computer does not spend time trying to run all those programs at the beginning. This improves the user experience as it means that the user isn't waiting as long to use the computer and can get more work done.
To manage startup programs, type in msconfig into the search box on the task bar and click on it. Then select the tab named startup. Norton anti-virus offers a variety of ways to combat malware. It continuously watches over the computer to check for any malicious software or suspicious behavior. It automatically scans downloaded files and eliminates any threats. It can scan your computer and look at all the files and remove any harmful files or programs. It can also stop threats to your PC by using its ‘reputation and behavior anti-virus technology’. It also blocks unsafe websites. Norton also blocks phishing websites, bad Facebook links and protects usernames and passwords. It doesn’t use too much of the CPUs power to run it so your computer will not slow down because of it. It does this by only doing scans when you are not using the computer. Norton Anti-Virus Creating a disk partition 1. Open Computer Management by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, clicking System and Maintenance, clicking Administrative Tools, and then double-clicking Computer Management. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.
2. In the Navigation pane, under Storage, click Disk Management.
3. Right-click an unallocated region on your hard disk, and then click New Simple Volume.
4. In the New Simple Volume Wizard, click Next.
5. Type the size of the volume you want to create in megabytes (MB) or accept the maximum default size, and then click Next.
6. Accept the default drive letter or choose a different drive letter to identify the partition, and then click Next.
7. In the Format Partition dialog box, do one of the following:
• If you don't want to format the volume right now, click Do not format this volume, and then click Next.
• To format the volume with the default settings, click Next.
8. Review your choices, and then click Finish. Disk Formatting and Reformatting Disk formatting gets a disk read to hold data. Disk Reformatting removes all data from a disk and allows data storage. This is done by certain PC's and other hardware devices like an Xbox 360. The Xbox 360 formats a memory stick to only use 16gb of the stick and also only work with a 360. To format a disk, right click on disk and select reformat. This can improve performance as it is a fresh start for the hard drive and it will not be full of programs so the CPU should be able to get access to the data it requires faster Sources Information on Utilities
Screenshot of Disk Defragmenter
Screenshot of Hex Editor
Screenshot of Disk Cleanup Software
Screenshot of Disk Partitions
Screenshot of Anti-Virus
Screenshot of Encryption Software
Screenshot of Backup
Screenshot of Internet History and Cookies Controls
Add Or Remove Programs