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Examining the Role of Street Design in Creating Healthy and

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Transcript of Examining the Role of Street Design in Creating Healthy and

Examining the Role of Street Design in Creating Healthy and Engaging Communities
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
synonyms of the term “community engagement”
:
"community engagement" OR "community involvement" OR "community development" OR "social capital" OR "social cohesion" OR "social connectedness" OR "social inclusion"
A data extraction table was inductively and iteratively developed.
First 10 articles were read by the primary reviewer who developed headings and subsequent categories for extraction
Updated through discussions with second reviewer
Increasing interest
in this subject matter in recent years
2 articles between 1995 and 2002
Since then, there have been 28 articles
Majority of articles published in the United States
(11 out of 30)
United Kingdom (8 out of 30)
Canada (5 out of 30)

Most studies
distinguished between neighbourhood level factors
(such as walking environment, social environment, transportation, services and amenities)
and individual-level factors

(such as socio-demographic characteristics and health status) .


Big Picture
Data Analysis
Databases:
MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, JSTOR, Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals and Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly
Inclusion Criteria:

Academic articles that are peer-reviewed
In English
After January 1995 - Present (February 2014)
Developed countries: Canada, United States, Northwestern Europe, New Zealand and Australia.
Exclusion Criteria:
Focus on housing, only rural environments, highways as a specific street typology, and workplace-related built environment or street design.

Search Strategy
1345 publications returned from initial search
--> 132 (applying excl./incl. criteria to abstracts)
--> 122 (removal of duplicates)
--> 30 final articles (applying excl./incl. criteria to full texts)
Results
Nadha Hassen, HBSc, MPH (c)

Data was extracted by only one reviewer
but the table and methodology were discussed with a second researcher to ensure parameters were defined and consistent

Most studies used a cross-sectional research design that limits the causality
between features of street design and the effect on community engagement/ social capital.

Articles ranged in the extent to which they addressed street design or community engagement.
Although articles were critically appraised using a five point scale there is still variation within the selected publications.

Grey literature was not included.
There may be relevant publications that exist outside of the databases searched.
Limitations
May 26, 2015
Public Health 2015, Vancouver, BC

synonyms of the term “street”
: "street design" OR "road" OR "boulevard" OR "avenue" OR "lane" OR "street" OR "right of way" OR "urban planning" OR "urban sprawl" OR "built environment" OR "built form" OR "neighbourhood design" OR "streetscape".
Each article's content was assessed for:
1) extent of focus on street design
2) extent of focus on community engagement (or related terms/concepts)
3) whether the article looks at effect of street design on community engagement (or one of its related terms/concepts).
High (=specific terms/concepts addressed primarily)
Medium (=although the term/concept is not the focus of the article, there is sufficient relevant content)
Low
(=the concept is not the focus of the article, little relevant content)
Implied (=not explicitly mentioned in the article but concept is discussed)
Implied High / Implied Medium /
Implied Low
None
Methodological quality assessment of the selected studies
Quantitative studies:
Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies was used (Effective Public Health Practice Project 2007).
Qualitative studies:
Supplementary Guidance for Inclusion of Qualitative Research in Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Interventions (Hannes, 2011)
Systematic Reviews
: Assessing Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews - AMSTAR tool (National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT), 2011).
Others:
Articles that discussed projects or interventions were included as long as they fit the inclusion/exclusion criteria
CIHR Travel Award - Institute Community Support
In partnership with CIHR - Inst of Population and Public Health
Procedure
Using a 5 point scale:

Related Terms
Results
16 Topic Areas/ Themes
.
39 Street Design Features
were extracted from articles and iteratively categorized within topic areas.
Conclusions
Topic Area: Aesthetics and Upkeep

Positive street design features:
shading, street furniture associated with better social cohesion and community interaction.

Negative street design features:
broken windows, graffiti, litter associated with poorer social cohesion and community interaction.
Topic Area: Walkability

Walkability is most prominent form of active transportation discussed in the literature. As such, was categorized separately.
14 articles (47%) focused on walkability vs. only 5 articles (17%) discussed other non-motorized activities such as biking.
Walkability is one of the areas which has the most evidence of an association with community engagement.
Street Design Features:
Crossing Signals / Crossing Islands
Street Connectivity
Sidewalks



Street design
encompasses a wide range of features
: street connectivity and lighting, but also graffiti and noise.

Street design can be extended to
creative projects
like street art, street theatre and community libraries. Garden labyrinth!

Complex mechanisms
require further research and analysis. Perhaps development of a conceptual map

Findings can
inform revitalization and retrofitting initiatives
- public policy, planning, health promotion
Objectives


It is increasingly well-documented how the built environment is linked to the increase in chronic non-communicable diseases

The physical design of many neighbourhoods has increasingly been seen as detrimental to social interactions, civic participation or community engagement

Lower social support, increased social isolation -> impacts overall well-being and health of communities
Background
Recommendations for new communities or retrofitting older ones:

Focus on pedestrian-centered environments
- not just in terms of increased and improved sidewalks, but also through street art and street theatre, better community spaces

Keep in mind those populations whose spaces may be appropriated
for other uses. E.g. children's outdoor play spaces and seniors' social hubs

Evaluate impact of interventions
wrt community engagement through pre-post design. Lack of evidence of effectiveness.
Future studies and research should consider:

Developing conceptual frameworks
linking these different topic areas, themes and street design features. Few articles used a theoretical framework or equivalent to situate their work

Conducting longitudinal studies
in this area to explore causality

Exploring impact on diverse populations
, e.g. those who are mobility limited, newcomers, low-income, Aboriginal populations.

Health equity
because there is differentiated access to green space based on differences between groups that may perpetuate health inequities

(Seaman, Jones and Ellaway, 2010).
Synthesize current literature on the topic
Inform related projects and initiatives
Understand what constitutes street design
Understand the relationship between street design and community engagement among various populations
(Semenza and March, 2009; Leyden, 2003)
References


(Richard et al., 2009)
Pamela Kaufman, PhD

Assistant Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto
p.kaufman@utoronto.ca

nadha.hassen@utoronto.ca
@nadhassen
Hannes K. Chapter 4: Critical appraisal of qualitative research. In: Noyes J et al (2011). Supplementary Guidance for Inclusion of Qualitative Research in Cochrane Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Cochrane Collaboration Qualitative Methods Group. Available from http://cqim.cochrane.org/supplemental-handbook-guidance
Leyden, K.M. (2003) Social Capital and the Built Environment: The Importance of Walkable Neighborhoods. American Journal of Public Health, 93 (9), p. 1546-1551.
National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (2011). AMSTAR: assessing methodological quality
of systematic reviews. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University. Retrieved from http://www.nccmt.ca/registry/view/eng/97.html.
Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies.Effective Public Health Practice Project 2007. Reviews
in Public Health and Health Promotion Assessment of study quality and risk of bias. Available
from http://handbook.cochrane.org/chapter_21/21_4_assessment_of_study_quality_and_risk_of_bias.htm
Richard, L., Gauvin, L.,Gosselin, C. & Laforest, S.(2009) Staying connected: Neighbourhood correlates of social participation among older adults living in an urban environment in Montreal, Quebec. Health Promotion International, 24(1), p. 46-57.
Seaman P.J., Jones R. & Ellaway A. (2010) It's not just about the park, it's about integration too: why people choose to use or not use urban greenspaces. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition & Physical Activity, 7, p.78.
Semenza, J.C. & March, T.L. (2009) An urban community-based intervention to advance social interactions. Environment and Behavior, 41 (1), p. 22-42.
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