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Activity 3.4.5: Urinalysis
Transcript of Activity 3.4.5: Urinalysis
Allie Trotti Case Study 5 A 9-year-old male is brought in by his mother because he is complaining of constant thirst and frequent urination. The problem is so bad that the boy is having trouble sleeping because he is constantly getting up to use the bathroom. A few times, he has even wet the bed. The mother suspects that something may be wrong with his pituitary gland as there is a family history of pituitary problems. Microscopic analysis of his urine does not reveal anything abnormal. The boy had colorless urine and a family history of pituitary problems o How did the urinalysis results lead you to your diagnosis? What is the relationship between what you see in the urine and the disease or disorder?
o What are the symptoms of the disease or disorder?
o How does this disorder relate directly or indirectly to other human body systems?
o What further tests should be done to confirm your diagnosis?
o What are possible treatments for your patient? Conclusion
1. Based on what you know about the function of the nephron, why should urine be free of blood cells?
The presence of red or white blood cells in the urine is called as hematuria.It can be a sign of a serious health problem in the urinary tract. If the blood cells are found in the urine, it means that they might have entered through the urinary tract.
2. Urinalysis is an important diagnostic tool for the determination of medical disorders. However, urinalysis has many other uses. Describe one other reason a person may have his/her urine tested.
Urinalysis is used to determine medical disorders but another reason someones urine may be tested is for drug use.
3. Explain why diagnostic tests are classified as a type of medical intervention.
A medical intervention is undertaken to help treat or cure a condition. A diagnostic test is used to identify/diagnose a recognized condition Chemical Analysis: pH: 6
Ketones: negative Macroscopic Analysis: Color: colorless
Clarity: clear Microscopic Analysis: Erythrocytes: not present
Leukocytes: not present Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms Extreme thirst
Excretion of an excessive amount of diluted urine
Fever, vomiting or diarrhea
Dry skin with cool extremities
Weight loss Other than a urinalysis you can have a water deprivation test, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and genetic screening Treatment Diabetes insipidus directly relates to the urinary system because it is affecting your kidney. Diabetes insipidus occurs when your body can't regulate how it handles fluids. Normally, your kidneys remove excess body fluids from your bloodstream. This fluid waste is temporarily stored in your bladder as urine, before you urinate. When your fluid regulation system is working properly, your kidneys make less urine when your body water is decreased, such as through perspiration, to conserve fluid. Desmopressin
low-salt diet to help reduce the amount of urine your kidneys make
Hydrochlorothiazide Case Study 2 Urinalysis Results:
The testing showed almost everything to be normal with him.
His pH, specific gravity, glucose levels were all in check. The presence of ketones came back negative in the chemical analysis. Also, from the microscopic test, his results showed no signs of Erythrocytes or Leukocytes. The patient's urine was yellow and clear. About the Patiant:
18 year old cross country runner who has no complaints about his health. He just finished a rather strenuous training session. Microscopic analysis of his urine does not reveal anything abnormal. The only abnormality was a trace amount of proteins which we will discuss. Proteinuria A disorder of the metabolism resulting in the presence of proteins in the urine. Diagnosis: Low levels of proteins found in the urine are not abnormal. Particularly in younger people after exercise or during an illness.
This perfectly explains Case Pataint #2's case. symptoms: Proteinuria has no signs or symptoms in the early stages.
Large amounts of protein in the urine may cause it to look foamy in the toilet.
Also, because protein has left the body, the blood can no longer soak up enough fluid, so swelling in the hands, feet, abdomen, or face may occur. Effected by proteinuria: Urinary tract
Mainly the bladder and kidneys
Muscular system, swelling may occur Further Testing: In new techniques, the amount of albumin in the urine sample is compared with the amount of creatinine, a waste product of normal muscle breakdown. The measurement is called a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). A urine sample containing more than 30 milligrams of albumin for each gram of creatinine (30 mg/g) is a warning that there may be a problem. Doctors can use the creatinine measurement to estimate how efficiently the kidneys are filtering the blood. This calculation is called the estimated glomerular filtration rate, or eGFR. Possible treatments of Proteinuria Points to remember:
Proteinuria is a sign of chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Proteinuria may have no signs or symptoms.
recommended regular checks for proteinuria medications are available!
Lodimol mainly used in pediatric renal disease Case Study 4 A 15-year-old female comes in for her annual physical. Her mom informs you that she is worried because the girl has been on a strict diet and has lost a great deal of weight in the past few months. She has very little energy and does not seem interested in hanging out with her friends. The girl mentions that she has been losing some hair lately and she has not menstruated over three months. Microscopic analysis of her urine does not reveal anything abnormal. It Shows No Family Problems Case Study 3 A 23-year-old female comes in for an emergency appointment. She complains of a strong, persistent desire to urinate, a burning sensation during urination, lower back pain and, a low-grade fever. Microscopic analysis of her urine reveals leukocytes and some crystals. Her urinalysis results state that her urine was yellow/green and cloudy and her pH was 6.5. Her specific gravity was 1.005 and her protein, glucose, and ketones were all negative. There were no erthrocytes present but there were leukocytes (crystals) present. Diagnosis The diagnosis was that the patient had a urinary tract infection, also known as a UTI. A UTI is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract. Symptoms The symptoms of a urinary tract infection include:
frequent urination or urge to urinate
soemtimes nausea or vomiting The urinalysis helped lead to the diagnosis because the urine was cloudy and a weird color and there was leukocytes present in the urine. Her symptoms also helped as they fit near perfectly with the symptoms of a UTI. Leukocytes present in the urine and a 6.5 pH balance are the relationship between what is seen in the urine and the UTI. A UTI is affective to the urinary tract and the digestive system because of nausea/vomiting. Further Tests and Treatments Further tests could include growing bacteria from your urinary tract after the urine sample. Treatment for a UTI are antibiotics and sometimes a pain medication that will help with the painful urination.