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Chapter 10: Chemical Quantities

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Robbie Schmauk

on 11 June 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 10: Chemical Quantities

By: Robbie Schmauk,
Alex Zhang,
Kelsey Henges,
and Megan Mershon

Chapter 10: Chemical Quantities
-By Count
-By Mass
-By Volume

The Mole (mol)
Three Methods
of Measuring a
Substance

Mole - unit of measuring the amount of particles.
- SI unit for measuring a substance

Avagadro's Number - 6.02 x 10
- Mole contains Avagadro's Number of Representative Particles

Representative Particles Include:
- Atoms, Molecules, Formula Units, and Ions
Example Problem:
How many moles are 2.80 x 10 atoms of Silicon?
Atomic Mass in grams is the mass of a mole of an element

Molar Mass - the mass of a mole of an element (grams)

Molar Mass of a Compound - Find the molar mass of each element in the compound and them together.
- Use molar mass to convert between moles
and mass
Molar Mass
Mole to Volume Relationship
Avagadro's Hypothesis - equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain an equal number of particles.

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP) - a temperature of 0 C and pressure of 101.3kPa (1atm)

Molar Volume - at STP molar volume = 22.4L
- 6.02 x 10 representative particles and 1 mole occupies 22.4L (at STP)
Example Problem:
What is the volume of 4.30 moles of N at STP?
23
24
2.80 x 10
atoms of Si
6.02 x 10
atoms of Si
23
24
23
1 mol of Si
4.65 mols of Si
=
Example Problem:
How many grams are in 5.00 moles of SO ?
3
SO = 32.07 + (15.99 x 3) = 80.04
3
5.00 mols of SO
3
1 mol of SO
3
80.04 g of SO
3
=
400 g of Si
o
23
2
4.30 mols
of N
2
1 mol
of N
2
22.4L of N
2
=
96.3L of N
2
Percent Composition
Percent Composition - the amount of the elements in a compound

% mass = mass of element in 1 mol of compound x 100
molar mass of compound
2
3
2
Empirical Formula - lowest whole number ratio of the atoms in a compound

Ex: C H O

Molecular Formula - same as experimentally determined empirical formula, or a whole number multiple of its empirical formula

Ex: C H O
4
6
4
Example Problem:
Calculate Percent Composition of NH .
3
Molar Mass of NH = 14.01 + (1.01 x 3) = 17.04
3
% of Nitrogen:
14.01g
17.04g
x 100 = 82.21%
% of Hydrogen:
3.03g
17.04g
x 100 = 17.78%
Works Cited
Matta, Staley, Waterman, Wilbraham, Prentice Hall Chemistry
Real World Example:
Volume of a gas changes based on
change in temperature in pressure.
This is why STP is important:
Lower Temp.
Higher Temp.
Real World Example:
Percent Composition of
a T-Shirt:
Real World Example:
Counting the individual pieces of
candy would be time consuming,
so measuring the jar in ml would
be an easier unit to use.
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