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How organisations use ICT (1)

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Santiago Pardo

on 19 November 2014

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Transcript of How organisations use ICT (1)


As years pass by, the usage of technology in the education sector continues increasing. These include the use of networks, computers, multimedia materials and communication systems. They are many different ways in how technology is used, as:
Control Systems
Uses microprocessors or computers to control certain physical conditions. This include temperature, humidity, pressure, light and moisture.
This basically means working from home. Being able to work OUT of the working premises
Advertising is a tool used by many companies and organisation to promote the thing they offer. A variety of media are used for this advertisements to be as effective as possible. Some of which are involve ICT and others don't.
Use of ICT in Publishing
Production of a Newspaper
Learning how organisations use ICT
Writers + Book editing
Sales and marketing
Customer + Technical support
PC with Internet access
access to e-mail
a fax machine
Layout of the typed page: needs to be easy to read. This can be done by:
Correct font
Correct size
Small and equal space between each individual letter in a word.
Leading space between the lines on the page
Length of each line
plate making
This also follows an order of 'doing things':

1. Images from negatives are transferred to printing plants.
2. Ultraviolet light passes through the negative films, which exposes the printing plate.
3. Chemical reaction occurs.
4. Causing the light-sensitive coating on the aluminium to form up an image.
Most suitable types of employment
The employees needs to:
Good self-discipline
Good concentration skills (Being able to not be easily distracted)
Able to manage their time efficiently
Car manufacture
Computer-controlled robots are used in this sector. Most of them are controlled by actuators in the form of electric motors. The typical robot arm consists of
seven metallic sections with six joints, each joint is controlled by a separate stepper motor.
Central-Heating Systems
Main parts: -Boiler
-Hot water cylinder

Examples of
control systems

Medical applications
Process control
Air-condition systems
Is a closed system of copper tubes in the form of coils containing a chemical liquid (refrigerant) that is easily converted to a gas and then back to a liquid.
Usually two temperature sensors that monitor the temperature of the refrigerant, allowing the system to control the amount of heat being let out of the system. There can also be a pressure sensor that monitors the pressure of the refrigerant so that the valve can be conterolled to reduce or increase the flow of refrigerant.
In a microprocessor-controlled heating system user selects
the wanted temperature. Microprocessor reads data from
temperature sensor on the wall and does continuos
comparisons with the pre-set value. To understand
the data it uses an ADC converter.
If it's lower, the microprocessor switches the boiler
and the pump on.

If higher, switches both of them off.
End effectors
Used to inspect work
Welding guns
To join parts of the
car body together
To pick up parts and place them somewhere else

Vacuum cups
To pick up parts without obstructing the sides or bottom
To make holes in
the car body
To place and tighten
screws, nuts, bolts and rivets
Spray guns
To paint the car body
To produce a shiny finish after painting
Why robots and
not humans?
Robotic arms have greater accuracy than humans
Running costs are lower in comparison to paying a person
Robotic arms don't get tired. 24/7
Whole process is continuous, no need to stop to shift changeovers.
Intensive Care
Patients are monitored through the use of sensors.
These sensors feed back information such as:
blood pressure
pulse rate
body temperature
Computer is pre-set with the average range of values
for that particular patient and is constantly comparing the data feed back from the sensors. If there's any abnormal result, the computer would produce an alarm sound. However, computers aren't able to reach to this, needing to resolve the problem with human intervention.
It involves using robotic arms and cameras inside the patient's body. They are 'special' as they are very small size in comparison with normal ones. The surgeon wears goggles connected to the computer to able him to see inside the patient.

Work is more accurate and surgeon is in complete control
Patients tend to recover more quickly
The use of computers or microprocessors to control a process. Used in oil refining, chemical processing, temperature control... It makes extensive use of analogue-to-digital and digital-to-analogue conversion.
Three types of process control:
Batch process
Continuous process control
Discrete process control
Used in process where specific amounts of raw
materials are combined together and mixed for
a certain time (eg. manufacturing of food products)
Ingredients are mixed together for a given time. The amount of the ingredient needed is controlled by a computer, as well as the temperature and length of time for each stage.
Refers to processes that appear to 'never end'
(eg. mantainance of temperature). Used in a refrigerant plant where it's needed to maintain a constant low temperature. This manufacturing processes are used to produce very large quantities of product per year.
When specifics items are produced. Connected to an on/off or start/stop process. For example, in bottle filling.
Types of advertising
Methods of advertising
There are
types of advertising:
Product advertising
Business advertising
Service advertising
The advertising of a specific product.
To be able to do an effective advert the business has to identify their target audience. The media in which the 'ad' is going to be shown needs to also be decided.
This is when a business advertises itself.
As in product advertising, the business needs to identify which type of customer they want to attract. The main objective of this type of advertisement, is trying to make the company name familiar.
Advertising services rather than goods.
Many businesses are willing to spend vast quantities of money in this type of advertisement, seeking to increase their profits. Also, public services are advertised but just in small proportions as they are not profit-making. These public services tend to be advertised in television, whereas private services tend to use a wide variety of advertising media.
Methods of advertising
(Computer-aided instruction)
This is the same as CBT (Computer-based training).
Is when the computer substitutes the teacher in the learning environment, being the main source of learning for the students.
How is used?
Firstly, the CAI gives the student a pre-test to evaluate in which level he or she should start on. This tends to be straightforward. Then the computer will generate a series of step-to-step tasks which the pupil can complete at their rhythm.
-Navigation tends to be easy for the student
-Games and quizzes make it more enjoyable
-Constant track of the students progress
-Lose of personal touch that the teachers offer.
-The students may accomodate themselves at a very low step-to-step pace which may not permit them do as much as work as they should for a given length of time (loss of teacher's motivation)
(Computer-aided Learning)
Means the same as CBL (computer-based learning). In this method the teacher is
replaced by technology but is still used to support the teacher and improve the learning experience of the pupil.
The teacher controls the learning experience.
It's the most important part in CAL.
It allows the students to investigate/research ideas. It can be said that is the most powerful and has the wider knowledge base. However, students need to be able to assure that the information they are reading is reliable.
DVD players
Interactive whiteboards
Computer-mediated communications
It consists of E-mail, instant messaging and chat-rooms.

(For example, e-mails can be used to allow the student to send completed tasks to the teacher)
Computer-Aided assesment
They are two main types:

Summative assesment is simply asking questions to a student and recording their responses.

Just like in an exam, afterwards a total mark is given and the student and teacher are informed.
The use of the results to specific questions given out by the students, to determine the progress of the student.

Tends to also generate areas of improvements or specific targets for the individual.
Spreadsheets: Used for storage of examination marks, predicted grades, target setting and attendance record of students.
Scores may be plotted in graphs or may be also shown in stadistics (eg. recording attendance)
The three types of advertising that we've just seen require some or all the following methods.
It's a cheap method of advertising and allows
organisations to advertise nationally and internationally at not expensive rates.
One way of advertising is for the business to have their
website. Web designers are employed to create the website using devices such as: speaker, video/digital cameras, microphones and scanners.
The website itself should have many features (animation, video, sound...). As well, it should be easy for the user to navigate (use of hyperlinks to other pages or sites provided). Finally, the organisation must take into consideration the power of search engines, trying to find out ways of getting to the top in the list of matching websites.
Advertising on other people's website
A cheaper alternative can be to advertise on existing websites
Adding it on the top of the screen to advertise business products or service
Little windows suddenly appear on top of the web page when a user access it
Multimedia presentations
Multimedia presentations can be used in the organisation's website and on purpose-ilt display monitors which are located on strategic locations.
Produced using:
It's a single-page leaflet. Tends to be used by individuals or small businesses. Limited impact to the reader. They're produced using their own PCs and printers.
Quick production time using a basic desktop-publishing software.
Allows precise placing of images and text.
A large printed piece of paper used to advertise goods/services.
Normally A1 size - printed by professional printers.
Produced using word-processing, desktop-publishing or presentation software.

Transmission of complete pages
The accepted layout of the page has already been received and approved; this is then send to the printing plant.
They are two different ways of printing:
Method 1
Method 2
First way of printing
1. Page is printed
2. Image is burned onto a light-sensitive film
3. The page is then placed in a large fax machine
4. The image is now transferred to the print plant
Second way of printing
1. Newspaper is completed in digital form
2. This is sent to the satellites
3. The satellite then transmitts it to various printing plants (owned by the firm) worldwide.
Printing-offset litography
To understand how this work, first we have to comprehend that this is a process, and it has an order of steps, so that it's able to work efficiently.
Aluminium is pressed into printing press
The roller plate then rotates against the blanket cylinder (this cause it to rubberised and the roller forms an image on the plate roller).
The blanket roller now presses against the paper, which makes the image to be printed.
Large sheets printed (copies of the newspaper) cut into separate versions of the newspaper
The process
This press consists of 3 rollers:
Plate cylinder
Blanket cylinder
Impression cylinder
Aluminium plates are flexible
and therefore bend around the cylinder plate. The roller, with the plate attached, has ink directed onto it.
The third roller presses paper against the blanket cylinder
Use of ICT in time management
Time management:
Finding and using the most efficient way to complete tasks. (Time + Quality)
Approaching to good
time management
Using software
How can organisations manage their time efficiently?
Identifying short/long term targets
Organisations need to identify the steps needed to be taken to the end point of a project; these short-term targets have been proved to be very motivational
To allow the project to be completed in the required time, it is important to identify which targets are more important than others, giving more time and importance to the most crucial ones.
Essential for the company for them to know what they are actually when they start creating the actual final product.
In the long run it saves the firm money and time.
Decision making
It is VERY IMPORTANT to take the right decisions at ALL stages in a project and these will affect the time taken at each stage.
Use of ICT
This is important especially for organisations that need to communicate with each other. Use of faxes and telephones makes things nowadays much easier.
The more organised a firm is = the most profitable it will be
Software packages
Software packages
Organising meeting times

Organizing e-mails
Calendar function
Research and development projects
This where business software comes in. They help organisations to create:
Gantt charts
Arranging workloard
There are software packages with a stopwatch function, this allos the user to complete specific tasks within a given time period.
Construction project management
Software that is used for this branch of work helps to identify the progress made.
As well it helps with the daily and weekly planning. This is because both employees and managers know where and how time is being spent, future plans can be made accordingly.
Organiser packages have the following functions:
The calendar function is that allows users to keep track of their appointments/meeting times
Two calendar types:
Public calendar
All employees can have access to it to know who is free and when
Private calendar
It is personal, it might include things like for example a dentist appointment
By this way, the user is able to track how much time they have spent on a specific task.
This is especially useful for managers because they are able to see how much time is being spent on a task by one employee
Art and
design work

Most companies which are in this sector use computers with large storage capacity. Usually these computers have an appropriate graphics software installed (image-editing software). It's used to alter the appearance of images that have been imported into the software input devices.
Abilities of this software
Rotate image
Flip image
Fill parts of image with colour
Look at image in 3D
Remove scratches from photos
Draw lines and other geometrical shapes
Add text in different fonts
Done with the use of a mouse or a tracker ball
Payroll Applications
Payroll systems involve batch processing. The files are stored on two separate magnetic fields. This means that there will be two types of data files involved.
The two types
Master file
Contains data about the workers:
Employee number (used as primary key)
Rate of pay
Contact details
When is the pay received
Transaction file
It is a temporary file; contains data that can change from month to month
Contains details of hours worked and any overtime of an employee number.
Details of any new worker or any worker whose details have been updated.
What happens in a payroll system?
End of week or month: master file is processed using transaction file.
Before the processing, the transaction file need to be put in the same order as the master file.
Computer then calculates the pay of each worker using the hours worked and the rate per hour.
Payslips printed along with
error reports
Information contained on these can be found on both the master and the transaction file
Financial Reports
Payroll software works as a report generator.
It contains:
Information on employees of a company
Information of all employee's salaries
National Insurance contributions for all employees
Income tax each employee has paid
Amount of money paid to each banch where employees have an account
Exception reports
These are reports of certain validation rules. For example:
-Employee earning an unusually large amount of money
-2 employees with the same National Insurance number
-Employee that has been on emergency tax for a long time
Technical and customer support
How does the system function?
Phone calls are processed by the Interactive Voice Response (IVR).
This program does not require any human assistance. It's an automatic service which can be accessed by the user which is calling. Him then is
connect to the system database thanks to using the IVR software.

Computer Telephony integration
It's a sofware used to integrate
aspects of the system together. Sends commands from the operators computer to the telephony server. The operator's computer has
direct connection to the phone, although
computer can control
phone in the telephone system.

CTI has two main functions:

Allows the customer to direct the call to:
i) Appropriate operator
ii) Another solution
The system needs to be able to transfer calls to a person with the appropriate expertise
Combines the data and voice input to the system
Displays the caller's number
Multiple dialling techniques:
a) Fast dial
b) Preview
c) Predictive dial
Call centres
Call centres
Examples of businesses using call centres
Why are call centres sited abroad?
Utility companies:
Use call centres where operators give customer support. Operators are able help when customers want to pay bills or change details of their account.
Mail order catalogues:
Offers customers help in the form of payments and account information.
Computer hardware/software suppliers:
Offer technical support to their customers, operators have technical expertise.
Why are call centres sited abroad?
Able to pay workers lower wages
Cost of buying/renting premises lower
Calls occur at suitable time hours (no timezones problems)
No need for company paying higher salaries to workers who work at unsociable hours.
Workers abroad may be less flexible in their responses (may have a script)
There may be problems in understanding different dialects
Use of ICT in data management
What is a database?
It is a collection of related data that basically consists of records and fields (each record contains the same set of fields). A field contains one piece of information.

And a management database system?
The software used to manage a database system.

It manages:
The structure of individual data file
The relationships between data items and between data files
How the data is interrogated
The properties of the database
Sequential Files
Records are stored one after the other, in the order in which they were originally added to the storage medium, normally a magnetic tape.

Two ways of arranging records:
1) Records in some sort of order using a key field. This way is called
ordered sequential
2) Records arranged in no particular ordered.
This is called
unordered sequential.
Only one way of accessing data: going through each record; one by one.
Disadvantages of sequential files:
Only able to add a new record is at the end of the file.
A record can only be replaced if the new record is exactly the same length as the original.
Record can be updated only if the data item used to replace the existing data is exactly the same length.
Indexed sequential and random access files
They are stored in order. Not like sequential files, which are stored in magnetic tape, these files are stored in disk, which allows them to have direct access.
Each record in the file has a fixed field length. Thanks to having things order, it provides a greater speed of access.
Hierarchical Database Management systems
This system is no longer used nowadays, as they suffer problem of one-way relationships.
They use a tree-like structure. Folders, also can have folder below them, in a Windows system, for example, but only one folder at the lever one above their level. Enabling fast access when you access to data, although, large amounts of data arbypassed as you go doen the levels.
Relational database systems
Consists of separate tables that are related in some way. Each table has a key field that is a field that appears in at least one other table. The data from the initial table can then be combined with data from another table at the time of producing reports.
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