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Korea

Final Presentation for HUM125 Spring 2013
by

Jeremy Anderson

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Korea

Goryeo and Joseon Dynasties SEOUL PYONGYANG CHINA RUSSIA JAPAN KOREA A History of Conflict Jeremy Anderson
Taylor Matsuyama - Peninsula unified under the Goryeo dynasty in 936 C.E
- Joseon dynasty take over in 1392, move capitol to Seoul
- 200-year peace under Joseon dynasty, ending in 19th century
- International pressure and internal rebellions cause collapse
- Cultural norms and language stem from the Joseon dynasty Korean Empire
1897-1910 - Peninsula still unified under Emperor Gojong- The Emperor begins rapid modernization of Korea’s infrastructure, including military
- Japan, frightened by Korea’s modernization, begins progressive annexation in 1904 starting with First Japan
-Korea Convention, which requires Korea’s foreign relations to be supervised by Japan - Freedom of press is severely limited- Women and girls are coerced into sexual slavery
- Korean farmers are forced to pay heavy taxes to Japanese on land they used to own- Korean Provisional Government established, based in China
- Axis Powers are defeated in World War II Japanese Colonial Rule
1910-1945 One Country Divided
1948 - United States and Soviet Union divide the peninsula along the 38th parallel and establish governments
- North Korea: Communist Dictatorship supported by Soviets
- Kim Il Sung, former Soviet military officer, installed as country’s leader
- South Korea: Authoritarian Republic supported by U.S.
- Dr. Syngman Rhee, U.S.-educated former leader of Korean Provisional Government, installed as president Setting the Stage
1948-1950 - Soviets withdraw from North Korea and leave behind substantial arms & military equipment, enough for an offensive strike
- United States withdraw from South Korea but leave behind only enough equipment for a small defensive force
- Global Cold War conditions inspire U.S. to support any and all anti-communist activity, turn a blind eye to mass killings & torture in South Korea
- Both Koreas still claim entire peninsula to be the “one true Korea,” but each sees the other as an inferior nation Korean War
1950-1953 - June 24th, 1950: North Korea begins military barrage all across the 38th parallel
- United States supports South Korea, but says the entire United Nations is involved
- China and the Soviet Union support the North
- Almost 5 million people killed in 3 years, but only 54,000 U.S. soldiers Korean Armistice Agreement
July 27th 1953 - U.S. Army Lt. Gen. William K. Harrison, Jr., senior delegate, United Nations Command Delegation; North Korean Gen. Nam Il, senior delegate, Delegation of the Korean People's Army and the Chinese People's Volunteers, signed 18 official copies of the tri-language Korean Armistice Agreement
- Longest negotiated armistice in history: 158 meetings over 2 years and 17 days
- Not a permanent Peace treaty Terms of Agreement - Suspended open hostilities- Withdrew all military forces and equipment from a 4,000 meter-wide zone, establishing the Demilitarized Zone as a buffer between the forces
- Prevented both sides from entering the air, ground, or sea areas under control of the other
- Arranged release and repatriation of prisoners of war and displaced persons
- Established the Military Armistice Commission (MAC) and other agencies to discuss any violations and to ensure adherence to the truce terms Rangoon Bombing
October 9th, 1983 - Attempted assassination of South Korean President Chun Doo-hwan
- Doo-hwan scheduled to visit Martyr’s Mausoleum in Burma, a shrine dedicated to nationalist leader Aung San and six other Burmese figures
- Three North Korean agents entered Burma before the visit and planted three remotely controlled bombs
- The devices were detonated prematurely and failed to kill Chun Doo-hwan, but killed 17 South Koreans, 4 Burmese, and injured 32 others
- Burma severed diplomatic ties with North Korea Korean Air Flight 858
November 29th, 1987 - Exploded in mid-air over the Andaman Sea due to a bomb planted inside an overhead storage bin by North Korean agents
- 104 passengers and 11 crew members, most of whom were South Korean, all died
- 34 years after the Korean Armistice Agreement
- US Dept. of State refers to the bombing of KAL 858 as a “terrorist act,” and listed North Korea as a state sponsor of terrorism until 2008 Second Battle of Yeonpyeong
June 29th, 2002 - A North Korean patrol boat crossed their country’s limit line and was warned to turn back, then a second patrol boat crossed the line shortly after
- The North Korean vessels traveled 3 miles past the line, then opened fire on the South Korean boats following them
- North Koreans: 13 killed, 25 wounded
- South Korean: 4 killed, 19 wounded
- Both sides blame each other 2006 North Korean Nuclear Test
October 9th, 2006 - North Korea announced it conducted a nuclear test on October 9th, 2006
- US confirmed that there was a nuclear explosion, but that their tests produced a low yield of less than one kiloton
- The United Nations Security Council met and approved a resolution condemning the tests and called for punitive sanctions
- North Korea insisted that any increased pressure on the regime would be regarded as an act of war
- China and South Korea supported the resolution, but there was uncertainty as to whether or not the two countries would strictly enforce the sanctions and/or cut off economic aid to North Korea Bombardment of Yeonpyeong
November 23rd, 2010 - North Korea fired at least 200 mortar shells towards Yeonpyeong Island in response to a South Korean Military drill
- South Korea claims that they had been firing their mortars west, not north
- 2 soldiers killed and 17 others wounded; 3 civilians were also hurt in the attack
- Speculated to be a premeditated attack by North Korea 2013 Korean Crisis - On February 12th, 2013 North Korea conducted its third nuclear test, in defiance of UN resolutions
- North Korea said that the test yielded a “greater explosive force” than the tests conducted in 2006 and 2009
- China was "strongly dissatisfied and resolutely opposed" to the test and urged North Korea to "stop any rhetoric or acts that could worsen situations and return to the right course of dialogue and consultation as soon as possible"- In response to the test, South Korea raised its military readiness level
- President Obama vowed actions to defend the US and its allies
- North Korea ends the 1953 Armistice 2013 Korean Crisis (cont'd) - The US and South Korea began military drills which were strongly condemned by Pyongyang - Declares that North Korea “is not restrained by the North-South declaration on non-aggression.”
- North Korea hits South Korea with a cyber attack which affected three South Korean television stations and a bank
- March 27th: Confirmation that North Korea severed the hotline between the North and South (the last remaining communication link between the two countries)
- March 30th: North Korea declares a ‘state of war’ against South Korea; Kim Jong-un declared that rockets were ready to be fired at American bases in the pacific (primarily in response to US B-2 Stealth bombers flying over the Korean peninsula on March 28th)
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