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Transcript of Grapes-INdia
journey throughout ancient India
Take a dive and submerge yourself in the rich history of Ancient India's
Ancient India had many important landforms that helped
it grow and prosper. There were : Mountain Ranges, Rivers, and Deserts.
Mountain Ranges: Himalayas
Rivers: Ganges & Indus
Deserts: Deccan Plateau
Mountains were used for protection. With the very tall mountains blocking their path, enemies could not easily climb over and attack the Indians.
Rivers supplied people in India with food, (fish, shellfish, etc.) gave them water, made fertile soil avaliable to farmers and farming, and supplied bathing options to the people.
The Deserts made great blockades because attackers could not get through the desert without much water and food. Their supplies would be very heavy and not worth the trip.
Ancient India's Geography contributed to the bringing up of this fascinating country.
Map of India:
Ganges river & Indus River
The most predictable weather patterns were rain and monsoons.
Winter brought cold air and dry winds while summer brought warm, wet air to India.
If rain came on time, then farmers would have good soil and many crops could be grown. If the rain did not come when expected, then there would NOT be enough food and many people would starve or be VERY hungry.
Rain that came on time was good for the farmers and was usually consistent.
Having no water resulted in hunger and drought for many people.
India's two main religions were Buddhism and Hinduism
The Universal Spirit of Hinduism was Brahman. Brahman should not be confused with Brahma (creator of the Holy Trinity). Brahman was a name used to designate a member of one of the 4 varnas in Hindu society.
Hindus believed in ONE chief god who then made many other minor gods.
Karma is the actions that one makes in relation to a person's Dharma. Karma is the steps that people use to reach Dharma.
Dharma is a person's duty in life. Their social class, family, time of life, etc.
Siddhartha Gautama started Buddhism because he saw the people of his land suffering. Gautama wanted a cure for this suffering.
Through meditation and analysis, Siddhartha obtained enlightenment. Buddhism is about doing the same as Siddhartha and giving up riches to become enlightened.
The END GOAL of Buddhism is to STOP all suffering in the world.
To obtain enlightenment, one must follow the 4 Noble Truths and the 8-Fold Path.
4 Noble Truths
1. Life is full of suffering
2. People suffer because they desire worldly things and self-satisfaction.
3. The way to end suffering is to stop desiring things.
4. The only way to stop desiring things is to follow the Eight-Fold Path
1. Know and understand the four noble truths.
2. Give up worldly things and don't harm others.
3. Tell the truth, don't gossip, and don't speak badly of others.
4. Don't commit evil acts, like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life.
5. Do rewarding work.
6. Work for good and oppose evil.
7. Make sure your mind keeps your senses under control.
8. Practice meditation as a way of understanding reality.
The first Indian script was made in 2600 B.C. The script is still not deciphered.
Later, different Indian scripts were made. Some examples of the scripts that had been created are Brahmi and Kharosthi
The languages were used to write and record epics (long poems), royal inscriptions, religious writings, administrative documents, and everyday inscriptions. Most everyday inscriptions were short. There were about 2 official Indian languages and 100 dialects.
Writing system & Literature
Some musical instruments made in Ancient India were the Sarod, Sarangi, Tambora, Harmonium, Ghata, Tabla, Tanpura, Satar, Etc.
Their paintings usually depicted scenes of and hunting scenes. No well-preserved paintings are left today.
Lastly, Indians used folk theater as a form of entertainment and art. People acted as buffaloes, goats, deer, reindeer, monkeys, etc., and a hunting scene would be acted out.
These plays were a depiction of everyday life which became a major role in modern theaters today.
mathematical and scientific
India made many mathemcal and scientific discoveries that changed the world.
India invented the number system 0-9
'Navigation' was developed straight from the Sanskrit word 'Navgatih'
The value of pi (3.1415926535...) was first calculated by an Indian named Budhayana. He also explained the concept ofo what is now known as the 'Pythagorean Theorem'.
Algebra, Trigonometry, and Calculus were also from India.
Chess, a popular board game, had originated in India.
Lastly, the place value and decimal system
came from Ancient India.
Many people did similar jobs for a living. In order to survive, most of India's population were farmers.
Some crops they grew were:
sugar cane (sometimes)
Most others were traders, potters, carpenters, glass workers, jewelers, weavers, and leather workers.
Very few people were also goldsmiths, barbers, woodcutters, laborers, fighters, dancers, hunters, usurers, garland makers, metal workers, craftsmen, attendants, and merchants.
In ancient India, there were many gender inequalities. Men and women were declared to have 'different duties in life' and that men should get important government jobs while women worked in the house.
Only sons of men could inherit their father's property and only men could go to school and/or become priests at a temple.
Women were taught housekeeping skills at home by their mothers.
There was historical and traditional bias against the rights of women and girls in favor of men and boys.
Things men could do but women could not:
hold public office
receive fair wages
have an education
serve in the military
enter legal contracts
have parental rights
The Indians were grouped into four classes also known as Varnas. The top two classes were the Brahmins and Kshatriya. Brahmins were priests who performed the religious ceremonies at temples. The Kshatriya were well-known warriors who ran the government and army.
Below the two (Brahmins and Kshatriya) were the Vaisyas. This class was made up of mostly farmers and merchants.
Lastly, there were the Sundras. They were laborers and servants who served for the rich and had very few rights of their own. Most of the population was part of the Sundras.
Pariahs and Untouchables were not part of and Varna (class)
The Aryans were a group of people who had come into India and had a big impact on India's culture.
The Aryans had first brought the law that cows and cattle were to be sacred and forbid them to be used as food, for leather, or any other cattle products.
They had also updated and invented new technology. The Aryans invented the iron plow, constructed canals to irrigate crops, and turned the land near the Ganges River into farmland.
Aryans brought the language of Sanskrit to India and organized tribes.
Each tribe was led by a raja (an Indian prince). Each prince led their own tribe and attempted to defeat others in search of power.
The Mauryan Empire was the first empire of India. In 321 B.C.,
Chandragupta Maurya, an Indian prince, the Mauryan Empire
was founded. He had conquered a large area near the Ganges
River shortly after Alexander the Great invaded western India .
Alexander and his army had weakened many kingdoms, so once he left, Maurya seized the opportunity and took over and united almost all of northern India. Maurya made a government in which rulers govern from a capital area/city.
Maurya had a well-trained army, spies to look out for rebels, and a communication system (sort of like a post office) to help maintain his control.
Asoka, another ruler in the Mauryan Dynasty, believed in peace and under his calm rule, trade prospered. After his death in 232 B.C., India's rulers were cruel to their people. Everybody after Asoka had ruled with iron fists, made bad choices, and enforced heavy taxes.
The last ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty was so cruel that he was killed by his own general (183 B.C.), thus ending the Mauryan Dynasty.
The Gupta Dynasty started in 320 A.D. when Chandra Gupta ruled and conquered most of northern India.
Gupta had many alliances and continued his conquest and grew India's empire. He consolidated his power and territory with marriage, alliances, and warfare. With all the power, Gupta drove out the Kushans from the north.
There was no centralization in the power, so it allowed regional rulers keep power and keep local policies in order. As a result of the Gupta rule, India went through an era of peace and prosperity. India was very rich as the empire profited from trade and the Silk Road.